Class 11 / Physics / Waves / All Topics

WAVES

                                                        

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Class 11 / Physics / Waves / All Topics

WAVES

            Detailed analysis of wave motion needs a mathematical language for describing waves. Transverse waves on a string will be considered first, but the method

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Class 11 / Physics / Waves / Displacement relation in Progressive wave

WAVES

A wave which travels continuously in a medium in the same direction without any change in its amplitude is called a progressive wave or a traveling wave. A progressive wave may be transverse or

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Class 11 / Physics / Waves / Displacement relation in Progressive wave

WAVES

A wave which travels continuously in a medium in the same direction without any change in its amplitude is called a progressive wave or a traveling wave. A progressive wave may be transverse or

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Class 11 / Physics / Waves / Superposition Of Waves

WAVES

Superposition principle states that the net disturbance at a given place and time caused by a number of waves in the same space is the vector sum of the disturbance i.e., displacements produced by

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Class 11 / Physics / Work, Energy and Power / All Topics

work power energy

                                                        &nbs

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Class 11 / Physics / Work, Energy and Power / All Topics

work power energy

The work done by a constant force of magnitude F on a point that moves a displacement d in the direction of the force is the product: W = Fd. Integration approach can

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Class 11 / Physics / Work, Energy and Power / All Topics

work power energy

Ø   Energy is ability or capacity to do work. Greater  the amount of energy possessed by the body, greater the work it will be able to do. Ø   Energy is c

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Class 11 / Physics / Work, Energy and Power / All Topics

work power energy

Statement:  Work done by all forces acting on a body is equal to change in its kinetic energy.   Proof:              Cons

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Class 11 / Physics / Work, Energy and Power / All Topics

work power energy

           A body is said to be in tanslatory equilibrium, if net force acting on the body is zero                

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Class 11 / Physics / Work, Energy and Power / All Topics

work power energy

   The time of doing work is called power. Power or average power is given by          \({{P}_{avg}}=\frac{work\ done}{time}\)  Power is a scalar

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Class 11 / Physics / Work, Energy and Power / All Topics

work power energy

suppose only conservative forces operate on a system of particles and potential energy U is difined correspoding to these  forces. There are either no other forces or the workdone by them is

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Class 11 / Physics / Work, Energy and Power / All Topics

work power energy

Potential energy of a body is the enrgy possessed by a body by virtue of its position or configuration in the gravitational field. Penergy is defined only for conservative forces. It does not

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Class 11 / Physics / Work, Energy and Power / Conservative Force and Non Conservative Force

work power energy

Conservative Forces:        If workdone by the force around a closed path is zero and it is independent of path then it is a conservative force. Under conserva

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Class 11 / Physics / Waves / Reflection and Transmission of wave

WAVES

At boundaries between different media, there is generally both reflection and transmission. A “boundary” is a place where there is a change in “how hard it is” for the wave

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Class 11 / Physics / Waves / Standing waves in Strings

WAVES

A standing wave is formed when two identical waves travelling in the opposite directions along the same line, interfere. On the path of a stationary wave, the amplitude of vibration varies simple

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Class 11 / Physics / Waves / Standing waves in Strings

WAVES

A standing wave is formed when two identical waves travelling in the opposite directions along the same line, interfere. On the path of a stationary wave, the amplitude of vibration varies simple

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Class 11 / Physics / Waves / Harmonics

WAVES

An ideal vibrating string will vibrate with its fundamental frequency and all harmonics of that frequency. The position of nodes and antinodes is just the opposite of

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Class 11 / Physics / Waves / Beats

WAVES

When two sound waves of same amplitude travelling in a same direction with slightly different frequencies superimpose, then intensity varies periodically with time. This effect is called Beats. Co

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Class 11 / Physics / Waves / Doppler Effect

WAVES

You all must have heard the whistle of a moving train. What do you feel when the train approaches you? The pitch of the whistle seems to rise. But when the engine passes by, the pitch appears to d

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Class 12 / Physics / Electrostatic potential and Capacitance / All Topics

ELECTROSTATICS

                                                        &nbs

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Class 12 / Physics / Current Electricity / All Topics

CURRENT ELECTRICITY

                                                        &nbs

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Class 12 / Physics / Electrostatic potential and Capacitance / All Topics

ELECTROSTATICS

        COULOMB’S INVERSE SQUARE LAW:                                    

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Class 12 / Physics / Electrostatic potential and Capacitance / All Topics

ELECTROSTATICS

  Electric Field :                        The region of space around an

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Class 12 / Physics / Current Electricity / All Topics

CURRENT ELECTRICITY

The drift velocity is the average uniform velocity acquired by free electrons inside a metal by the application of an electric field which is responsible for current through it. Free electrons

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Class 12 / Physics / Electrostatic potential and Capacitance / All Topics

ELECTROSTATICS

   Electric filed at the axis of a  circular uniformly charged ring:                           Intensity of ele

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Class 12 / Physics / Moving Charges and Magnetism / Biot-savart's Law and Ampere's Law

MAGNETISM

                                                        &nbs

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Class 12 / Physics / Moving Charges and Magnetism / Biot-savart's Law and Ampere's Law

MAGNETISM

            Similar to the Gauss’s law of electrostatics, this law provides us short cut methods of finding magnetic field in cases of symmetry.  &nbs

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Class 12 / Physics / Moving Charges and Magnetism / Motion of Charged Particle In Magnetic Field

MAGNETISM

Magnetic field at the center:           The distance between current element on the circular coil and the center is ‘r’ and the angle be

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Class 12 / Physics / Current Electricity / Electric Conduction, Ohm's Law and Resistance

CURRENT ELECTRICITY

If the temperature of a conductor remains constant, then the ratio of thepotential difference (or voltage) V to the current I remain constant for any conductor, which is known as resistance o

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Class 12 / Physics / Current Electricity / Electric Conduction, Ohm's Law and Resistance

CURRENT ELECTRICITY

Resistance is the property of a substance by  which it opposes the flow of current through it.     For a given body, the resistance is defined as the ratio of applied poten

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Class 12 / Physics / Current Electricity / Electric Conduction, Ohm's Law and Resistance

CURRENT ELECTRICITY

Resistance is the property of a substance by  which it opposes the flow of current through it.     For a given body, the resistance is defined as the ratio of applied poten

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Class 12 / Physics / Electrostatic potential and Capacitance / All Topics

ELECTROSTATICS

a)     A charged body of mass ‘m’ and charge ‘q’ is initially at rest in a uniform electric field of intensity E.       

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Class 12 / Physics / Electrostatic potential and Capacitance / All Topics

ELECTROSTATICS

Electric Dipole:             An electric dopole is a pair of equal and opposite point charge   and  seperated by a distance 2a

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Class 12 / Physics / Electrostatic potential and Capacitance / All Topics

ELECTROSTATICS

ELECTRIC POTENTIAL : i)     Electric potential at a point in an electric field  is the amount of workdone in bringing a unit positive charge from infinity to that point

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Class 12 / Physics / Moving Charges and Magnetism / Motion of Charged Particle In Magnetic Field

MAGNETISM

Suppose a straight current carrying wire AB, carrying current i, lies in the plane of the paper as shown in the figure, P is a point at a perpendicular distance R from conductor, where magnetic fi

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Class 12 / Physics / Electrostatic potential and Capacitance / All Topics

ELECTROSTATICS

ØTwo charges  and  are separated by a distance 'd'. The     P.E.      of the system of charges is     &

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Class 12 / Physics / Current Electricity / Kirchhoff's Law, Cells

CURRENT ELECTRICITY

Kirchhoff's Laws for current and voltage lie at the heart of circuit analysis. With these two laws, plus the equations for individual component (resistor, capacitor, inductor), we have the bas

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Class 12 / Physics / Moving Charges and Magnetism / Motion of Charged Particle In Magnetic Field

MAGNETISM

A solenoid is a long cylindrical helix, which is obtained by winding closely a large number of turns of insulated copper wire over a tube of cardboard or china clay. When electric current is passe

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Class 12 / Physics / Moving Charges and Magnetism / Motion of Charged Particle In Magnetic Field

MAGNETISM

A solenoid is a long cylindrical helix, which is obtained by winding closely a large number of turns of insulated copper wire over a tube of cardboard or china clay. When electric current is passe

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Class 12 / Physics / Moving Charges and Magnetism / Force and Torque on a Current Carrying Conductor

MAGNETISM

When a charged particle having charge 'q' is projected into a magnetic field, it experiences a magnetic force which is given by the expression        

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Class 12 / Physics / Moving Charges and Magnetism / Force and Torque on a Current Carrying Conductor

MAGNETISM

When a charged particle having charge 'q' is projected into a magnetic field, it experiences a magnetic force which is given by the expression        

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Class 12 / Physics / Current Electricity / Kirchhoff's Law, Cells

CURRENT ELECTRICITY

An electrical cell is a device that is used to generate electricity, or one that is used to make chemical reactions possible by applying electricity.     i) A c

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Class 12 / Physics / Moving Charges and Magnetism / Force and Torque on a Current Carrying Conductor

MAGNETISM

Consider a particle of mass m , charge q , moving horizontally with velocity u , as shown in the figure. The charge enters a region between two parallel plates (length L), where an electric field

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Class 12 / Physics / Moving Charges and Magnetism / Force and Torque on a Current Carrying Conductor

MAGNETISM

Consider a particle of mass m , charge q , moving horizontally with velocity u , as shown in the figure. The charge enters a region between two parallel plates (length L), where an electric field

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Class 12 / Physics / Moving Charges and Magnetism / Force and Torque on a Current Carrying Conductor

MAGNETISM

Consider a particle of mass m , charge q , moving horizontally with velocity u , as shown in the figure. The charge enters a region between two parallel plates (length L), where an electric field

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Class 12 / Physics / Moving Charges and Magnetism / Force and Torque on a Current Carrying Conductor

MAGNETISM

           A current carrying conductor is itself formed by moving charges. Hence, when a current carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field it experiences a fo

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Class 12 / Physics / Moving Charges and Magnetism / Force and Torque on a Current Carrying Conductor

MAGNETISM

           A current carrying conductor is itself formed by moving charges. Hence, when a current carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field it experiences a fo

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Class 12 / Physics / Moving Charges and Magnetism / Force and Torque on a Current Carrying Conductor

MAGNETISM

Two current carrying straight conductors placed near each other will exert (magnetic) forces on each other due to magnetic field of each other.              

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Class 12 / Physics / Moving Charges and Magnetism / Force and Torque on a Current Carrying Conductor

MAGNETISM

Two current carrying straight conductors placed near each other will exert (magnetic) forces on each other due to magnetic field of each other.              

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Class 12 / Physics / Moving Charges and Magnetism / Force and Torque on a Current Carrying Conductor

MAGNETISM

Case I:              When place of the loop is perpendicular to magnetic field \(\ell \)           &

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Class 12 / Physics / Moving Charges and Magnetism / Force and Torque on a Current Carrying Conductor

MAGNETISM

Case I:              When place of the loop is perpendicular to magnetic field \(\ell \)           &

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Class 12 / Physics / Current Electricity / Heating & Chemical Effect of Current

CURRENT ELECTRICITY

Introduction:  When an electric current is passed through a conductor, the conductor becomes hot after some time and produce heat. This happens due to the conversion of some electric energ

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Class 12 / Physics / Moving Charges and Magnetism / All Topics

MAGNETISM

Moving coil galvanometer is an electromagnetic device that can measure small values of current. It is also known as Weston galvanometer. It works on the principle that when a current loop is place

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Class 12 / Physics / Moving Charges and Magnetism / All Topics

MAGNETISM

Moving coil galvanometer is an electromagnetic device that can measure small values of current. It is also known as Weston galvanometer. It works on the principle that when a current loop is place

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Class 12 / Physics / Current Electricity / Different Measuring Instruments

CURRENT ELECTRICITY

A Wheatstone bridge is an electric circuit used to measure an unknown electrical resistance by balancing two legs of a bridge circuit, one leg of which includes the unknown com

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Class 12 / Physics / Moving Charges and Magnetism / All Topics

MAGNETISM

A magnetic field line or magnetic flux line shows the direction of a magnet's force and the strength of a magnet.         &

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Class 12 / Physics / Moving Charges and Magnetism / All Topics

MAGNETISM

A magnetic field line or magnetic flux line shows the direction of a magnet's force and the strength of a magnet.         &

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Class 12 / Physics / Current Electricity / All Topics

CURRENT ELECTRICITY

It is the device mainly used to measure emf of a given cell and to compare emf’s of cells. It is also used to measure internal resistance of a given cell. P.D across the balancing length

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Class 12 / Physics / Moving Charges and Magnetism / All Topics

MAGNETISM

Coulomb's law, or  Coulomb's inverse-square law, is a law of physics for quantifying the amount of force with which stationary electrically charged particles repel or attrac

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Class 12 / Physics / Moving Charges and Magnetism / All Topics

MAGNETISM

Coulomb's law, or  Coulomb's inverse-square law, is a law of physics for quantifying the amount of force with which stationary electrically charged particles repel or attrac

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Class 12 / Physics / Moving Charges and Magnetism / All Topics

MAGNETISM

(A)       If a magnet of length l and magnetic moment M gets bent in the form of a semicircular, then its new magnetic moment will          &

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Class 12 / Physics / Moving Charges and Magnetism / All Topics

MAGNETISM

(A)       If a magnet of length l and magnetic moment M gets bent in the form of a semicircular, then its new magnetic moment will          &

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Class 12 / Physics / Current Electricity / All Topics

CURRENT ELECTRICITY

Consider the following statements :           A: As no current is drawn from the cell in the secondary of a potentiometer  at   the t

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Class 12 / Physics / Current Electricity / All Topics

CURRENT ELECTRICITY

1.In the circuit shown in figure     (a)    Find the final charge on each capacitor after closing the switch.          (b)  &n

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Class 11 / Chemistry / Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties / Periodic Trends in Physical Properties

Periodic Trends in Physical Properties

                                                        &nbs

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Class 10 / Science / Chemical Reactions and Equations / All Topics

CHEMICAL REACTIONS AND EQUATIONS

INTRODUCTION:   Chemistry is defined as that branch of science which deals with the composition and properties of matter and the changes that matter undergone by various interactions. A

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Class 11 / Physics / Motion in a Plane / Introduction , Scalars and Vectors, Addition , Subtraction , Multiplication and Resolution of Vectors

Motion in a plane

Motion of the body can be represented in many ways according to the vision of observer. The motion of an object is called two dimensional, if two of the three co-ordinates required specifying the

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Class 11 / Physics / Motion in a Plane / Motion in a plane with constant acceleration

Motion in a plane

Motion in two dimension with constant acceleration we we know is the motion in which velocity changes at a constant rate i.e, acceleration remains constant throughout the motion We should set

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Class 11 / Physics / Motion in a Plane / Oblique Projectile , Time of flight (T) , Maximum height H() , Range (R)

Motion in a plane

Let a particle is projected from the ground with velocity u m s–1––--­666565 at an angle \(\theta\)  with the ground and it follow a curved path OAB as show in figure.

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Class 11 / Botany / Biological Classification / Viruses, Viroids, Prions & Lichens

Viruses , Viroids , Prions and Lichens

CLASSIFICATION OF VIRUSES Holmes in 1948 proposed the classification of viruses. He placed all the viruses into a single order virales. Which is further divided into three sub orders as under. &

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Class 11 / Physics / Motion in a Plane / Circular Motion

Motion in a plane

Uniform Circular Motion If a particle moves along the circumference of a circle with constant speed, the motion is termed as uniform circular motion.   Here, the magnitude of the veloci

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Class 11 / Botany / Biological Classification / Monera , Protista , Fungi

Monera , Protista , Fungi

 KINGDOM - MONERA   Christesen & dougherty - gave the term ‘prokaryote’ and ‘eukaryote’ C.B. Van Neil : Divided the living organisms into prokaryotes an

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Class 11 / Physics / Motion in a Plane / Projectile Motion from top of a tower

Motion in a plane

Equation of trajectory: Consider a point \(P\left( x,y \right)\) at time \(t\). Horizontal motion: Since acceleration due to gravity acts along the vertical and hence, has got no com

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Class 11 / Physics / Work, Energy and Power / Work, Types of Work Done, Frame of Reference and Graphs

Work, Energy, Power and Collision

Introduction The terms 'work', 'energy' and 'power' are frequently used in everyday language. A farmer clearing weeds in his field is said to be working hard. A woman c

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Class 11 / Botany / Plant Kingdom / Algae

Algae

Introduction : The branch of botany dealing with the study of algae is called as phycology or algology. It is derived from the Greek word Phykos which means 'alga' or 'sea weed'. T

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Class 11 / Physics / Work, Energy and Power / Energy , Types of Energy , Conservation of Energy

Work, Energy, Power and Collision

ENERGY, TYPES OF ENERGY , CONSERVATION OF ENERGY   Energy The energy of a body is defined as its capacity for doing work. (1) Since energy of a body is the total quantity of work don

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Class 11 / Physics / Work, Energy and Power / Kinetic Energy

Work, Energy, Power and Collision

Kinetic Energy The energy possessed by a body by virtue of its motion, is called kinetic energy. Examples : (i) Flowing water possesses kinetic energy which is used to run the water mills. (

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Class 11 / Physics / Work, Energy and Power / Potential Energy

Work, Energy, Power and Collision

Potential Energy Potential energy is defined only for conservative forces. In the space occupied by conservative forces every point is associated with certain energy which is called the energy of

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Class 11 / Physics / Work, Energy and Power / Conservation of Energy and Momentum

Work, Energy, Power and Collision

Law of Conservation of Energy   (1) Law of conservation of energy For a body or an isolated system by work-energy theorem we have \({{K}_{2}}-{{K}_{1}}=\int_{{}}^{{}}{\vec{F}.\,d\vec{r}

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Class 11 / Physics / Work, Energy and Power / Power

Work, Energy, Power and Collision

Power   Power of a body is defined as the rate at which the body can do the work. Average power \(({{P}_{\text{av}\text{.}}})=\frac{\Delta W}{\Delta t}=\frac{W}{t}\) Instantaneous pow

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Class 11 / Physics / Work, Energy and Power / Collision , Types of Collisions

Work, Energy, Power and Collision

COLLISION ,TYPES OF COLLISIONS   Collision Collision is an isolated event in which a strong force acts between two or more bodies for a short time as a result of which the energy and mom

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Class 11 / Botany / Plant Kingdom / Bryophytes

Bryophytes

INTRODUCTION The term “Bryophyta” was proposed by “Robert Braun” The study of Bryophytes is known as Bryology.   Hedwing is considered to be the father of Br

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Class 11 / Physics / Work, Energy and Power / Elastic and Inelastic Collision

Work, Energy, Power and Collision

Elastic head on collision and inelastic head on collision   Perfectly elastic head on collision Let two bodies of masses \({{m}_{1}}\) and \({{m}_{2}}\) moving with initial velocities \(

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Class 11 / Botany / Plant Kingdom / Pteridophytes

Pteridophytes

Introduction : The pteridophytes (Gk. Pteron = feather and phyton = plants ; means plants with feather like fronds or ferns). They are flowerless, seedless, spore producing vascular plant which ha

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Class 11 / Physics / Work, Energy and Power / Perfectly Inelastic Collision

Work, Energy, Power and Collision

Perfectly Inelastic Collision   In such types of collisions, the bodies move independently before collision but after collision as a one single body.   (1) When the colliding bod

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Class 11 / Botany / Plant Kingdom / Gymnosperms

Gymnosperms

Introduction : Gymnosperm (Gk. Gymnos = naked ; sperma = seed) are the plants with exposed or naked seeds or ovules Term Gymnosperm given by Theophrastus. Study of Gymnosperm known as Gymnosp

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Class 11 / Botany / Plant Kingdom / Angiosperms

Angiosperms

Introduction : The angiosperms, or flowering plants, constitute the most dominant and ubiquitous vascular plants of present day flora which changed the green and yellow melancholy of the earth's v

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Class 11 / Botany / Morphology Of Flowering Plants / Vegetative morphology and modifications- Root, Stem and Leaf

Vegetative Morphology of Root , Stem and Leaf

Introduction : Angiospermic or flowering plants show a great variety of shape, size and form. The size ranges from the minute Wolffia and Lamna (0.1cm) to the tall Eucalyptus (up to 100 metre) and

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Class 11 / Chemistry / Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure / Kossel – Lewis approach to chemical bonding

Chemical bonding and Molecular structure

Chemical bond is the physical and chemical process responsible for the attractive interactions between atoms molecules, ions and that which confers stability to diatomic and polyatomic chemical entiti

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Class 11 / Chemistry / Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure / Ionic or electrovalent bond - Favourable Factors and Properties of Ionic Compounds

Chemical bonding and Molecular structure

Ionic Bond or Electrovalent Bond An ion is an atom or group of atoms which has acquired charge due to the loss or gain of one or more electrons. When an atom gains an electron to form a negative io

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Class 11 / Chemistry / Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure / Bond Parameters – Bond length, Bond angle, bond Enthalpy, Bond order, Resonance, Dipole moment

Chemical bonding and Molecular structure

Bond parameters Bond Strength and Bond Length The average distance between the centres of two nuclei of the bonded atoms measured in angstrongs. Bond energy or bond strength is the amount of ene

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Class 11 / Chemistry / Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure / Covalent Bond - Valence Bond Theory , Hybridisation , VSEPR Theory

Chemical bonding and Molecular structure

Covalent Bond (By Mutual Sharing of Electrons) The covalent bond is formed when two atoms achieve stability by the sharing of an electron pair, each contributing one electron to the electron pair.

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Class 11 / Chemistry / Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure / Molecular Orbital Theory

Chemical bonding and Molecular structure

Molecular Orbital Theory Shapes of Molecular Orbitals When atomic orbital overlaps in phase then B-MO are formed and if overlaps out of phase then ABMO are formed. And both process occurs simult

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Class 11 / Chemistry / Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure / Coordinate bond , Hydrogen Bonding and Metallic Bonding

Chemical bonding and Molecular structure

Coordinate bond, Hydrogen Bonding and Metallic Bonding Coordinate bond It is a special type of covalent bond in which both the shared electrons are contributed by one atom only. The atom which c

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Class 11 / Physics / Gravitation / Newton's Law of Gravitation , Acceleration due to Gravity

Gravitation

Introduction Newton at the age of twenty-three is said to have seen an apple falling down from tree in his orchid. This was the year 1665. He started thinking about the role of earth's attract

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Class 11 / Physics / Gravitation / Gravitation Potential , Energy and Escape Velocity

Gravitation

Gravitational Potential At a point in a gravitational field potential \(V\) is defined as negative of work done per unit mass in shifting a test mass from some reference point (usually at infinity)

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Class 11 / Physics / Gravitation / Motion of Satellite and Kepler's laws of Planetary Motion

Gravitation

Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion   Planets are large natural bodies rotating around a star in definite orbits. The planetary system of the star sun called solar system consists of ni

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Class 11 / Botany / Morphology Of Flowering Plants / Reproductive - Inflorescence , Flower , Fruits

Inflorescence , Flower , Fruits

INFLORESCENCE Arrangement of flower on floral axis is called inflorescence. Racemose – In this type of inflorescence the main axis continues to grow and does not terminate in a flower and

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Class 11 / Botany / Histology and Anatomy / Tissues - Types , Structure and Functions

Types , Structure and Functions of Tissues

TISSUE: A group of cells which is having similar or dissimilar in shape, having a common origin and usually performing a common function is called tissue. The term tissue was coined by Nehe

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Class 11 / Physics / Thermal Properties Of Matter / Heat and Temperature and its measurements

Thermal Properties of Matter

Heat, Temperature and its measurements   Introduction William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, (1824 –1907) was a British mathematical physicist, engineer, and outstanding leader in the

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Class 11 / Physics / Thermal Properties Of Matter / Thermal Expansion

Thermal Properties of Matter

Thermal Expansion   Most substance expand when they are heated. Thermal expansion is a consequence of the change in average separation between the constituent atoms of an object. Atoms of a

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Class 11 / Physics / Thermal Properties Of Matter / Ideal Gas Equation and Absolute Temperature

Thermal Properties of Matter

Ideal Gas Equation and Absolute Temperature   Concept of an Ideal gas A gas has no shape and size and can be contained in a vessel of any size or shape. It expands indefinitely and unifo

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Class 11 / Physics / Thermal Properties Of Matter / Heat Transfer by Conduction

Thermal Properties of Matter

Conduction The process of transmission of heat energy in which the heat is transferred from one particle to other particle without dislocation of the particle from their equilibrium position is cal

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Class 11 / Physics / Thermal Properties Of Matter / Heat Transfer by Convection and Laws of Radiation

Thermal Properties of Matter

Convection Mode of transfer of heat by means of migration of material particles of medium is called convection. It is of two types.   (1) Natural convection: This arise due to differ

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Class 11 / Maths / CT / All Topics

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Class 11 / Maths / Sets / All Topics

Live test

What is Lorem Ipsum? Lorem Ipsum is simply dummy text of the printing and typesetting industry. Lorem Ipsum has been the industry's standard dummy text ever since the 1500s, when an unknow

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Class 10 / Science / Acids , Bases and Salts / All Topics

Introduction

Count and compare the number of atoms of each element on the LHS and RHS of the arrow. Is the number of atoms of each element the same on both the sides? If yes, then the equation is balanced. If not,

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Class 10 / Physics / Light - Reflection and Refraction / Reflection of Light

Introduction

electricity has an important place in modern society. It is a controllable and convenient form of energy for a variety of uses in homes, schools, hospitals, industries, and so on. What constitutes ele

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Class 10 / Science / Metals and Non-metals / Physical Properties of Metals and Non-Metals

Introduction

We are familiar with air current and water current. We know that flowing water constitute water current in rivers. Similarly, if the electric charge flows through a conductor (for example, through a m

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Class 10 / Physics / Light - Reflection and Refraction / Reflection of Light

Reflection of Light

 law of reflection is defined as In the case of dielectrics such as glass, the electric field of the light acts on the electrons in the material, and the moving electrons generate fields and beco

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Class 6 / Geography / The Earth in the Solar System / Celestial Bodies

WHAT ARE CELESTIAL BODIES

WHAT ARE CELESTIAL BODIES How wonderful it is to watch the sky after sunset! One would first notice one or two bright dots shining in the sky. Soon you would see the number increasing. You cannot c

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Class 6 / Geography / The Earth in the Solar System / Celestial Bodies

STARS AND CONSTELLATIONS

STARS AND CONSTELLATIONS Stars Some celestial bodies are very big and hot. They are made up of gases. They have their own heat and light, which they emit in large amounts. These celestial bodies

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Class 6 / Geography / The Earth in the Solar System / Celestial Bodies

PLANETS

PLANETS Some celestial bodies do not have their own heat and light. They are lit by the light of the stars. Such bodies are called planets. The word ‘planet’ comes from the Greek word &

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Class 6 / Geography / The Earth in the Solar System / The Solar System

THE SUN

THE SUN The sun, eight planets, satellites, and some other celestial bodies known as asteroids and meteoroids form the solar system. We often call it a solar family, with the sun as its Head.

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Class 6 / Geography / The Earth in the Solar System / The Solar System

PLANETS

PLANETS There are eight planets in our solar system. In order of their distance from the sun, they are Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.    

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Class 6 / Geography / The Earth in the Solar System / The Solar System

THE MOON

THE MOON A Satellite A Satellite is a celestial body that moves around the planets in the same way as the planets move around the sun.   Our earth has only one satellite, that is, the

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Class 6 / Geography / The Earth in the Solar System / The Solar System

ASTEROIDS & METEOROIDS

ASTEROIDS & METEOROIDS Asteroids Apart from the stars, planets, and satellites, there are numerous tiny bodies which also move around the sun. These bodies are called asteroids. They are fou

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Class 6 / Geography / The Earth in the Solar System / The Solar System

GALAXY & UNIVERSE

GALAXY & UNIVERSE Galaxy Do you see whitish broadband, like a white glowing path across the sky on a clear starry night? It is a cluster of millions of stars. This band is the Milky Way

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Class 6 / Geography / Globe : Latitudes and Longitudes / Our Globe

GLOBE AND AXIS

GLOBE AND AXIS Globe In the previous chapter, you have read that our planet earth is not a sphere. It is slightly flattened at the North and the South Poles and bulge in the middle. Can you imag

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Class 6 / Geography / Globe : Latitudes and Longitudes / Our Globe

EQUATOR

EQUATOR Another imaginary line running on the globe divides it into two equal parts. This line is known as the equator. The northern half of the earth is known as the Northern Hemisphere and the so

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Class 6 / Geography / Globe : Latitudes and Longitudes / Latitudes

PARALLELS OF LATITUDES

PARALLELS OF LATITUDES All parallel circles from the equator up to the poles are called parallels of latitudes. Latitudes are measured in degrees.   The equator represents the zero-degre

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Class 6 / Geography / Globe : Latitudes and Longitudes / Latitudes

IMPORTANT PARALLELS OF LATITUDES

IMPORTANT PARALLELS OF LATITUDES Besides the equator (0°), the North Pole (90°N), and the South Pole (90° S), there are four important parallels of latitudes– 1.Tropic of Cance

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Class 6 / Geography / Globe : Latitudes and Longitudes / Heat Zones of Earth

TORRID, TEMPERATE & FRIGID ZONES

TORRID, TEMPERATE & FRIGID ZONES Torrid Zone The mid-day sun is exactly overhead at least once a year on all latitudes in between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. This area,

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Class 6 / Geography / Globe : Latitudes and Longitudes / Longitudes

WHAT ARE LONGITUDES?

WHAT ARE LONGITUDES? To fix the position of a place, it is necessary to know something more than the latitude of that place. You can see, for example, that Tonga Islands (in the Pacific Ocean) and

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Class 6 / Geography / Globe : Latitudes and Longitudes / Longitudes

PRIME MERIDIAN

PRIME MERIDIAN Unlike parallels of latitude, all meridians are of equal length. Thus, it was difficult to number the meridians. Hence, all countries decided that the count should begin from the mer

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Class 6 / Geography / Globe : Latitudes and Longitudes / Longitudes

LONGITUDE AND TIME

LONGITUDE AND TIME The best means of measuring time is by the movement of the earth, the moon, and the planets. The sun regularly rises and sets every day, and naturally, it is the best time-keeper

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Class 6 / Geography / Globe : Latitudes and Longitudes / Longitudes

WHY DO WE HAVE STANDARD TIME?

WHY DO WE HAVE STANDARD TIME? The local time of places which are on different meridians is bound to differ. For example, it will be difficult to prepare a time-table for trains which cross several

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Class 6 / Geography / Motions of the Earth / Rotation and Revolution

WHAT IS ROTATION?

WHAT IS ROTATION? As you know that the earth has two types of motions, namely rotation, and revolution. Rotation is the movement of the earth on its axis. The axis of the earth which i

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Class 6 / Geography / Motions of the Earth / Rotation and Revolution

WHAT IS REVOLUTION?

WHAT IS REVOLUTION? The movement of the earth around the sun in a fixed path or orbit is called Revolution.            (or) The secon

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Class 6 / Geography / Motions of the Earth / Rotation and Revolution

SUMMER SOLSTICE

SUMMER SOLSTICE On 21st June, the Northern Hemisphere is tilted towards the sun. The rays of the sun fall directly on the Tropic of Cancer. As a result, these areas receive more heat. The areas nea

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Class 6 / Geography / Motions of the Earth / Rotation and Revolution

WINTER SOLSTICE

WINTER SOLSTICE On 22nd December, the Tropic of Capricorn receives direct rays of the sun as the South Pole tilts towards it. As the sun’s rays fall vertically at the Tropic of Capricorn (23&

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Class 6 / Geography / Motions of the Earth / Rotation and Revolution

EQUINOX

EQUINOX On 21st March and September 23rd, direct rays of the sun fall on the equator. At this position, neither of the poles is tilted towards the sun; so, the whole earth experiences equal days an

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Class 6 / Geography / Maps / Introduction to Maps

WHAT ARE MAPS?

WHAT ARE MAPS? You have learnt in the previous chapter about the advantages of a globe. However, the globe has limitations as well. A globe can be useful when we want to study the earth as a whole.

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Class 6 / Geography / Maps / Types Of Maps

PHYSICAL, POLITICAL AND THEMATIC MAPS

PHYSICAL, POLITICAL AND THEMATIC MAPS Maps provide more information than a globe. They are of different types. Some of them are described below. Physical maps Maps showing natural features of

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Class 6 / Geography / Maps / Components of Maps

DISTANCE

DISTANCE There are three Components of Maps – distance, direction, and symbol. Distance Maps are drawings, which reduce the entire world or a part of it to fit on a sheet of paper

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Class 6 / Geography / Maps / Components of Maps

DIRECTION

DIRECTION Most maps contain an arrow marked with the letter ‘N’ at the upper right-hand corner. This arrow shows the north direction. It is called the north line. When you know the nort

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Class 6 / Geography / Maps / Components of Maps

SYMBOLS

SYMBOLS It is the third important component of a map. It is not possible to draw on a map of the actual shape and size of different features such as buildings, roads, bridges, trees, rail

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Class 6 / Geography / Maps / Components of Maps

SKETCH AND PLAN

SKETCH AND PLAN Sketch A sketch is a drawing mainly based on memory and spot observation and not to scale. Sometimes a rough drawing is required of an area to tell where a  partic

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Class 6 / Geography / Major Domains of the Earth / Introduction to Major Domains Of Earth

INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION As you have read in the first chapter, the earth is the only planet that has life. Human beings can live here because the life-sustaining elements of land, water, and air are pres

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Class 6 / Geography / Major Domains of the Earth / Introduction to Major Domains Of Earth

BIOSPHERE – THE DOMAIN OF LIFE

BIOSPHERE – THE DOMAIN OF LIFE The Biosphere is the narrow zone where we find land, water, and air together, which contains all forms of life. (Or) The biosphere is the narrow zone of c

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Class 6 / Geography / Major Domains of the Earth / Lithosphere

LITHOSPHERE – CONTINENTS AND OCEANS BASINS

LITHOSPHERE – CONTINENTS AND OCEANS BASINS Lithosphere The solid portion of the earth is called the Lithosphere. It comprises the rocks of the earth’s crust and the thin layers of so

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Class 6 / Geography / Major Domains of the Earth / Lithosphere

ASIA, EUROPE

ASIA, EUROPE Asia is the largest continent. It covers about one-third of the total land area of the earth. The continent lies in the Eastern Hemisphere. The Tropic of Cancer passes through this con

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Class 6 / Geography / Major Domains of the Earth / Lithosphere

AFRICA

AFRICA Africa is the second-largest continent after Asia. The Equator or 00 latitude runs almost through the middle of the continent. A large part of Africa lies in the Northern Hemisphere. Look at

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Class 6 / Geography / Major Domains of the Earth / Lithosphere

NORTH AMERICA AND SOUTH AMERICA

NORTH AMERICA AND SOUTH AMERICA North America is the third largest continent in the world. It is linked to South America by a very narrow strip of land called the Isthmus of Panama. The continent l

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Class 6 / Geography / Major Domains of the Earth / Lithosphere

AUSTRALIA AND ANTARCTICA

AUSTRALIA AND ANTARCTICA Australia is the smallest continent that lies entirely in the Southern Hemisphere. It is surrounded on all sides by the oceans and seas. It is called an island co

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Class 6 / Geography / Major Domains of the Earth / Hydrosphere

HYDROSPHERE

HYDROSPHERE The earth is called the blue planet. More than 71 percent of the earth is covered with water and 29 percent is with the land. Hydrosphere consists of water in all its&nbs

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Class 6 / Geography / Major Domains of the Earth / Hydrosphere

OCEAN

OCEAN Oceans are a major part of the hydrosphere. They are all interconnected. The ocean waters are always moving. The three chief movements of ocean waters are the waves, the tides, and the ocean

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Class 6 / Geography / Major Domains of the Earth / Atmosphere

ATMOSPHERE AND ITS COMPONENTS

ATMOSPHERE AND ITS COMPONENTS The earth is surrounded by a layer of gas called the atmosphere. This thin blanket of air is an integral and important aspect of the planet. It provides us with the ai

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Class 6 / Geography / Major Landforms of the Earth / Introduction to Landforms

INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL PROCESS

INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL PROCESS These landforms are a result of two processes. You will be amazed to know that the ground you are standing on is slowly moving. Within the earth, a continuous movement

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Class 6 / Geography / Major Landforms of the Earth / Different Landforms

MOUNTAINS

MOUNTAINS Broadly, we can group different landforms depending on elevation and slope as mountains, plateaus, and plains. A hill is a land surface that rises higher than the surrounding area. Gen

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Class 6 / Geography / Major Landforms of the Earth / Different Landforms

PLATEAUS

PLATEAUS A plateau is an elevated flat land. It is a flat-topped table land standing above the surrounding area. A plateau may have one or more sides with steep slopes. The height of plateaus often

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Class 6 / Geography / Major Landforms of the Earth / Different Landforms

PLAINS

PLAINS Plains are large stretches of flat land. They are, generally, not more than 200 meters above mean sea level. Some plains are extremely level. Others may be slightly rolling and undulating. M

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Class 6 / Geography / Major Landforms of the Earth / Landforms and People

PEOPLE IN DIFFERENT LANDFORMS

PEOPLE IN DIFFERENT LANDFORMS Humans have been living in different kinds of landforms in different ways. Life is difficult in mountainous areas. Plains provide much better conditions. It is easy to

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Class 6 / Geography / Our Country – India / India - Its Location

LOCATION OF INDIA

LOCATION OF INDIA India is a country of vast geographical expanse. In the north, it is bound by the lofty Himalayas. The Arabian Sea in the west, the Bay of Bengal in the east, and the Indian Ocean

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Class 6 / Geography / Our Country – India / India's Neighbours

OUR NEIGHBOURS

OUR NEIGHBOURS There are seven countries that share land boundaries with India. Across the sea to the south, lie our island neighbors— Sri Lanka and the Maldives. Sri Lanka is separated from

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Class 6 / Geography / Our Country – India / Divisions of India

POLITICAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS

POLITICAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS India is a vast country. For administrative purposes, the country is divided into 29 States and 9 Union Territories. Delhi is the national capital. The states

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Class 6 / Geography / Our Country – India / Divisions of India

PHYSICAL DIVISIONS

PHYSICAL DIVISIONS India is marked by a diversity of physical features such as mountains, plateaus, plains, coasts, and islands. Standing as sentinels in the north are the lofty snow-c

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Class 6 / Geography / India : Climate, Vegetation and Wildlife / Weather, Climate and Seasons

WHAT IS WEATHER OR CLIMATE?

WHAT IS WEATHER OR CLIMATE? You read in newspapers daily and watch on T.V. or hear others talking about the weather. You must know that weather is about day to day changes in the atmosphere. It inc

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Class 6 / Geography / India : Climate, Vegetation and Wildlife / Weather, Climate and Seasons

WINTER

WINTER Cold weather season *Cold Weather Season (Winter) December to February. *During the winter season, the sun rays do not fall directly in the region. As a result, the temperatures are qu

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Class 6 / Geography / India : Climate, Vegetation and Wildlife / Weather, Climate and Seasons

SUMMER

SUMMER Hot weather season * Hot Weather Season (Summer) March to May. * In the hot weather season sun rays more or less directly fall in this region. Temperature becomes very high.

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Class 6 / Geography / India : Climate, Vegetation and Wildlife / Weather, Climate and Seasons

RAINY SEASON

RAINY SEASON Southwest monsoon season * Southwest Monsoon Season (Rainy) June to September. * This season is marked by the onset and advance of the monsoon. The winds blow from Ara

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Class 6 / Geography / India : Climate, Vegetation and Wildlife / Weather, Climate and Seasons

AUTUMN

AUTUMN Season of retreating monsoons * Season of Retreating Monsoon (Autumn) October and November. * Winds move back from the mainland to the Bay of Bengal. This is the season of t

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Class 6 / Geography / India : Climate, Vegetation and Wildlife / Natural Vegetation

WHAT IS NATURAL VEGETATION?

WHAT IS NATURAL VEGETATION? The climate of a place is affected by its location, altitude, distance from the sea, and relief. Therefore, we experience regional differences in the climate of India. J

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Class 6 / Geography / India : Climate, Vegetation and Wildlife / Forests and Wild Life

WHY ARE FORESTS NECESSARY?

WHY ARE FORESTS NECESSARY? Forests are very useful for us. They perform various functions. Plants release oxygen that we breathe and absorb carbon dioxide. The roots of the plants bind the soil; th

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Class 6 / Geography / India : Climate, Vegetation and Wildlife / Forests and Wild Life

WILD LIFE

WILDLIFE Forests are home to a variety of wildlife. There are thousands of species of animals and a large variety of reptiles, amphibians, mammals, birds, insects, and worms which dwell in the fore

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Class 6 / History / What, Where, How And When? / What can we know about the past ?

STORY OF PAST

STORY OF PAST Finding out what happened Yesterday: you could listen to the radio, watch television, read a newspaper. Last year: ask somebody who remembers. But what about long, long ago?

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Class 6 / History / What, Where, How And When? / Where did people live ?

BANKS OF NARMADA, INDUS AND GANGA

BANKS OF NARMADA, INDUS AND GANGA Find the river Narmada on Map 1. People have lived along the banks of this river for several hundred thousand years. Some of the earliest people who lived here

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Class 6 / History / What, Where, How And When? / Where did people live ?

SULAIMAN, KIRTHAR, GARO HILLS AND VINDHYAS

SULAIMAN, KIRTHAR, GARO HILLS AND VINDYAS Now find the Sulaiman and Kirthar hills to the northwest. Some of the areas where women and men first began to grow crops such as wheat and barley abou

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Class 6 / History / What, Where, How And When? / Where did people live ?

WHY DO PEOPLE TRAVEL NOWADAYS?

WHY DO PEOPLE TRAVEL NOWADAYS? Hills, mountains, and seas form the natural frontiers of the subcontinent. While it was difficult to cross these frontiers, those who wanted could and did scale the m

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Class 6 / History / What, Where, How And When? / Where did people live ?

NAMES OF THE LAND

NAMES OF THE LAND Two of the words we often use for our country are India and Bharat. The word India comes from the Indus, called Sindhu in Sanskrit. The Iranians and the Greeks who came through t

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Class 6 / History / What, Where, How And When? / Finding Out About The Past

MANUSCRIPTS

MANUSCRIPTS There are several ways of finding out about the past. One is to search for and read books that were written long ago. These are called manuscripts because they were written by hand (thi

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Class 6 / History / What, Where, How And When? / Finding Out About The Past

INSCRIPTIONS

INSCRIPTIONS We can also study inscriptions. These are writings on relatively hard surfaces such as stone or metal. Sometimes, kings got their orders inscribed so that people could see, read and ob

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Class 6 / History / What, Where, How And When? / Finding Out About The Past

ARCHEOLOGY

ARCHEOLOGY There were many other things that were made and used in the past. Those who study these objects are called archaeologists. They study the remains of buildings made of stone and brick,

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Class 6 / History / What, Where, How And When? / One Past or Many ?

OUR PASTS

OUR PASTS Did you notice the title of this book, Our Pasts? We have used the word ‘pasts’ in the plural to draw attention to the fact that the past was different for different groups of

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Class 6 / History / What, Where, How And When? / What Do Dates Mean ?

BC AND AD

BC AND AD If somebody asks you the date, you will probably mention the day, month, and year, 2000 and something. These years are counted from the date generally assigned to the birth of Jesus

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Class 6 / History / From Hunting–Gathering To Growing Food / Movement of Earliest People

STORY OF HUNTER-GATHERS

STORY OF HUNTER-GATHERS The earliest people: why were they on the move? We know about people who lived in the subcontinent as early as two million years ago. Today, we describe them as hunter

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Class 6 / History / From Hunting–Gathering To Growing Food / Movement of Earliest People

FINDING HUNTER-GATHERS

FINDING HUNTER-GATHERS Archaeologists have found some of the things hunter-gatherers made and used. It is likely that people made and used tools of stone, wood, and bone, of which stone tools have

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Class 6 / History / From Hunting–Gathering To Growing Food / Movement of Earliest People

EVIDENCE OF HUNTER-GATHERS

EVIDENCE OF HUNTER-GATHERS Look at Map below. All the places marked with red triangles are sites from which archaeologists have found evidence of hunter-gatherers. (Hunter-gatherers lived in many m

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Class 6 / History / From Hunting–Gathering To Growing Food / Movement of Earliest People

ROCK PAINTINGS

ROCK PAINTINGS Many of the caves in which these early people lived have paintings on the walls. Some of the best examples are from Madhya Pradesh and southern Uttar Pradesh. These paintings show wi

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Class 6 / History / From Hunting–Gathering To Growing Food / Movement of Earliest People

FINDING OUT ABOUT FIRE

FINDING OUT ABOUT FIRE Traces of ash have been found in Kurnool caves. This suggests that people were familiar with the use of fire. Fire could have been used for many things: as a source of light,

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Class 6 / History / From Hunting–Gathering To Growing Food / Names and Dates

PALAEOLITHIC

PALAEOLITHIC Archaeologists have given lengthy names for the time that we are studying. They call the earliest period the Palaeolithic. This comes from two Greek words, ‘palaeo’, meanin

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Class 6 / History / From Hunting–Gathering To Growing Food / Names and Dates

MESOLITHIC

MESOLITHIC The period when we find environmental changes, beginning about 12,000 years ago till about 10,000 years ago is called the Mesolithic (middle stone). Stone tools found during this period

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Class 6 / History / From Hunting–Gathering To Growing Food / Names and Dates

NEOLITHIC

NEOLITHIC The next stage, from about 10,000 years ago, is known as the Neolithic. What do you think the term Neolithic means? We have also mentioned the names of some places. You will find th

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Class 6 / History / From Hunting–Gathering To Growing Food / The beginning of Farming and Herding

A CHANGING ENVIRONMENT

A CHANGING ENVIRONMENT Around 12,000 years ago, there were major changes in the climate of the world, with a shift to relatively warm conditions. In many areas, this led to the development of grass

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Class 6 / History / From Hunting–Gathering To Growing Food / The beginning of Farming and Herding

START OF FARMING AND HERDING

START OF FARMING AND HERDING This was also a time when several grain bearing grasses, including wheat, barley, and rice grew naturally in different parts of the subcontinent. Men, women, and c

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Class 6 / History / From Hunting–Gathering To Growing Food / The beginning of Farming and Herding

DOMESTICATION

DOMESTICATION Beginnings of domestication (about 12,000 years ago). Domestication is the name given to the process in which people grow plants and look after animals. Very often, plants and anim

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Class 6 / History / From Hunting–Gathering To Growing Food / A New Way of Life

GROWING PLANTS AND STORING ANIMALS

GROWING PLANTS AND STORING ANIMALS If you plant a seed, you will notice that it takes some time to grow. This may be for several days, weeks, months, and in some cases years. When people began

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Class 6 / History / From Hunting–Gathering To Growing Food / A New Way of Life

FINDING FIRST FARMERS AND HERDERS

FINDING FIRST FARMERS AND HERDERS Turn to Map. You will notice a number of blue squares. Each marks a site from where archaeologists have found evidence of early farmers and herders. These are foun

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Class 6 / History / From Hunting–Gathering To Growing Food / A New Way of Life

TOWARDS A SETTLED LIFE

TOWARDS A SETTLED LIFE Archaeologists have found traces of huts or houses at some sites. For instance, in Burzahom (in present-day Kashmir) people built pit-houses, which were dug into the ground,

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Class 6 / History / From Hunting–Gathering To Growing Food / A New Way of Life

LIVING AND DYING IN MEHRGARH

LIVING AND DYING IN MEHRGARH Beginning of settlement at Mehrgarh (about 8000 years ago). Mehrgarh is located in a fertile plain, near the Bolan Pass, which is one of the most important rout

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Class 6 / History / In The Earliest Cities / The Story of Harappa

A STORY TO TELL

A STORY TO TELL Very often, old buildings have a story to tell. Nearly a hundred and fifty years ago, when railway lines were being laid down for the first time in Punjab, engineers stumbled upon t

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Class 6 / History / In The Earliest Cities / The Story of Harappa

SPECIAL ABOUT THESE CITIES

SPECIAL ABOUT THESE CITIES Many of these cities were divided into two or more parts. Usually, the part to the west was smaller but higher. Archaeologists describe this as the citadel. Generally, th

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Class 6 / History / In The Earliest Cities / The Story of Harappa

HOUSES, DRAINS AND STREETS

HOUSES, DRAINS AND STREETS Generally, houses were either one or two storeys high, with rooms built around a courtyard. Most houses had a separate bathing area, and some had wells to supply water.

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Class 6 / History / In The Earliest Cities / The Story of Harappa

LIFE IN THE CITY

LIFE IN THE CITY A Harappan city was a very busy place. There were people who planned the construction of special buildings in the city. These were probably the rulers. It is likely that the rulers

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Class 6 / History / In The Earliest Cities / New Crafts, Raw Materials and Food

NEW CRAFTS IN THE CITY

NEW CRAFTS IN THE CITY Let us look at some of the objects that were made and found in Harappan cities. Most of the things that have been found by archaeologists are made of stone, shell, and metal,

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Class 6 / History / In The Earliest Cities / New Crafts, Raw Materials and Food

IN SEARCH OF RAW MATERIALS

IN SEARCH OF RAW MATERIALS Raw materials are substances that are either found naturally (such as wood, or ores of metals) or produced by farmers or herders. These are then processed to produce fini

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Class 6 / History / In The Earliest Cities / New Crafts, Raw Materials and Food

FOOD FOR PEOPLE IN THE CITIES

FOOD FOR PEOPLE IN THE CITIES While many people lived in the cities, others living in the countryside grew crops and reared animals. These farmers and herders supplied food to craftspersons, scribe

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Class 6 / History / In The Earliest Cities / Harappan Towns in Gujarat

A CLOSER LOOK

A CLOSER LOOK The city of Dholavira was located on Khadir Beyt (also spelled as Bet) in the Rann of Kutch, where there were freshwater and fertile soil. Unlike some of the other Harappan cities, wh

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Class 6 / History / In The Earliest Cities / Decline of Harappa

THE MYSTERY OF THE END

THE MYSTERY OF THE END Around 3900 years ago we find the beginning of a major change. People stopped living in many of the cities. Writing, seals and weights were no longer used. Raw materials brou

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Class 6 / History / What Books And Burial Tell Us / Vedas

ONE OF THE OLDEST BOOKS IN THE WORLD

ONE OF THE OLDEST BOOKS IN THE WORLD You may have heard about the Vedas. There are four of them – the Rigveda, Samaveda, Yajurveda, and Atharvaveda. Activity: Find out whether you

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Class 6 / History / What Books And Burial Tell Us / Rigveda

SAGES AND SUKTA

SAGES AND SUKTA The oldest Veda is the Rigveda, composed about 3500 years ago. The Rigveda includes more than a thousand hymns, called sukta or “well-said”. These hymns are in praise of

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Class 6 / History / What Books And Burial Tell Us / Rigveda

HOW HISTORIANS STUDY THE RIGVEDA

HOW HISTORIANS STUDY THE RIGVEDA Historians, like archaeologists, find out about the past, but, in addition to material remains, they examine written sources as well. Let us see how they study the

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Class 6 / History / What Books And Burial Tell Us / Rigveda

CATTLE, HORSES AND CHARIOTS

CATTLE, HORSES AND CHARIOTS There are many prayers in the Rigveda for cattle, children (especially sons), and horses. Horses were yoked to chariots that were used in battles, which were fought to c

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Class 6 / History / What Books And Burial Tell Us / Rigveda

WORDS TO DESCRIBE PEOPLE

WORDS TO DESCRIBE PEOPLE There are several ways of describing people — in terms of the work they do, the language they speak, the place they belong to, their family, their communities, and cu

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Class 6 / History / What Books And Burial Tell Us / Silent Sentinels

THE STORY OF THE MEGALITHS

THE STORY OF THE MEGALITHS Look at the Figure below. These stone boulders are known as megaliths (literally big stones). These were carefully arranged by people and were used to mark burial

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Class 6 / History / What Books And Burial Tell Us / Silent Sentinels

FINDING OUT ABOUT SOCIAL DIFFERENCES

FINDING OUT ABOUT SOCIAL DIFFERENCES Archaeologists think that objects found with a skeleton probably belonged to the dead person. Sometimes, more objects are found in one grave than in another. In

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Class 6 / History / What Books And Burial Tell Us / Silent Sentinels

FAMILY BURIAL SPOTS

FAMILY BURIAL SPOTS Sometimes, megaliths contain more than one skeleton. These indicate that people, perhaps belonging to the same family, were buried in the same place though not at the same time.

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Class 6 / History / What Books And Burial Tell Us / Silent Sentinels

A SPECIAL BURIAL AT INAMGAON

A SPECIAL BURIAL AT INAMGAON Inamgaon is a site on the river Ghod, a tributary of the Bhima. It was occupied between 3600 and 2700 years ago. Here, adults were generally buried in the ground, laid

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Class 6 / History / What Books And Burial Tell Us / Silent Sentinels

OCCUPATIONS AT INAMGAON

OCCUPATIONS AT INAMGAON Archaeologists have found seeds of wheat, barley, rice, pulses, millets, peas, and sesame. Bones of a number of animals, many bearing cut marks that show they may have been

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Class 6 / History / Kingdoms, Kings And An Early Republic / Rulers

HOW SOME MEN BECAME RULERS?

HOW SOME MEN BECAME RULERS? Choosing leaders or rulers by voting is something that has become common during the last fifty years or so. How did men become rulers in the past? Some of the rajas we r

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Class 6 / History / Kingdoms, Kings And An Early Republic / Rulers

VARNAS

VARNAS We have many books that were composed in north India, especially in the areas drained by the Ganga and the Yamuna, during this period. These books are often called later Vedic because they w

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Class 6 / History / Kingdoms, Kings And An Early Republic / Janapadas to Mahajanapadas

JANAPADAS

JANAPADAS The rajas who performed these big sacrifices were now recognized as being rajas of janapadas rather than Janas. The word janapada literally means the land where the Jana set its foot and

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Class 6 / History / Kingdoms, Kings And An Early Republic / Janapadas to Mahajanapadas

MAHAJANAPADAS

MAHAJANAPADAS About 2500 years ago, some janapadas became more important than others and were known as mahajanapadas. Some of these are shown on Map. Most mahajanapadas had a capital city, many of

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Class 6 / History / Kingdoms, Kings And An Early Republic / Janapadas to Mahajanapadas

TAXES

TAXES As the rulers of the mahajanapadas were (a)building huge forts (b) maintaining big armies, they needed more resources. And they needed officials to collect these. So, instead of depending on

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Class 6 / History / Kingdoms, Kings And An Early Republic / Janapadas to Mahajanapadas

CHANGE IN AGRICULTURE

CHANGE IN AGRICULTURE There were two major changes in agriculture around this time. One was the growing use of iron ploughshare. This meant that heavy, clayey soil could be turned over better than

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Class 6 / History / Kingdoms, Kings And An Early Republic / Mahajanapada - A Closer Look

MAGADHA

MAGADHA Magadha became the most important mahajanapada in about two hundred years. Many rivers such as the Ganga and Son flowed through Magadha. This was important for (a) transport, (b) water supp

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Class 6 / History / Kingdoms, Kings And An Early Republic / Mahajanapada - A Closer Look

VAJJI

VAJJI While Magadha became a powerful kingdom, Vajji, with its capital at Vaishali (Bihar), was under a different form of government, known as Gana or sangha. In a gana or a sangha there were no

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Class 6 / History / Kingdoms, Kings And An Early Republic / Mahajanapada - A Closer Look

AJATASTTU AND THE VAJJIS

AJATASTTU AND THE VAJJIS This is an account of the Vajjis from the Digha Nikaya, a famous Buddhist book, which contains some of the speeches of the Buddha. These were written down about 2300 years

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Class 6 / History / New Questions And Ideas / The Story of the Buddha

FROM SIDDHARTHA TO BUDDHA

FROM SIDDHARTHA TO BUDDHA Siddhartha, also known as Gautama, the founder of Buddhism, was born about 2500 years ago. This was a time of rapid change in the lives of people. As you saw in Chapter 5(

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Class 6 / History / New Questions And Ideas / The Story of the Buddha

BUDDHA TEACHINGS

BUDDHA TEACHINGS The Buddha taught that life is full of suffering and unhappiness. This is caused because we have cravings and desires (which often cannot be fulfilled). Sometimes, even if we get w

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Class 6 / History / New Questions And Ideas / The Story of the Buddha

THE STORY OF KISAGOTAMI

THE STORY OF KISAGOTAMI Here is a famous story about the Buddha. Once there was a woman named Kisagotami, whose son had died. She was so sad that she roamed through the streets of the city carry

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Class 6 / History / New Questions And Ideas / Indian Philosophy

SIX SCHOOLS OF INDIAN PHILOSOPHY

SIX SCHOOLS OF INDIAN PHILOSOPHY Over centuries, India’s intellectual exploration of truth has come to be represented by six systems of philosophy. These are known as Vaishesika, Nyaya, Samkh

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Class 6 / History / New Questions And Ideas / Indian Philosophy

UPANISHADS

UPANISHADS Around the time that the Buddha was preaching and perhaps a little earlier, other thinkers also tried to find answers to difficult questions. Some of them wanted to know about life after

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Class 6 / History / New Questions And Ideas / Indian Philosophy

JAINISM

JAINISM The last and 24th tirthankara of the Jainas, Vardhamana Mahavira, also spread his message around this time, i.e. 2500 years ago. He was a kshatriya prince of the Lichchhavis, a group that w

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Class 6 / History / New Questions And Ideas / Indian Philosophy

THE SANGHA

THE SANGHA Both the Mahavira and the Buddha felt that only those who left their homes could gain true knowledge. They arranged for them to stay together in the sangha, an association of those who l

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Class 6 / History / New Questions And Ideas / Shelters

MONASTERIES

MONASTERIES To begin with, both Jaina and Buddhist monks went from place to place throughout the year, teaching people. The only time they stayed in one place was during the rainy season, when it w

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Class 6 / History / New Questions And Ideas / Shelters

THE SYSTEM OF ASHRAMAS

THE SYSTEM OF ASHRAMAS Around the time when Jainism and Buddhism were becoming popular,brahmins developed the system of ashramas. Here, the word ashrama does not mean a place where people live a

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Class 6 / History / Ashoka, The Emperor Who Gave Up War / A Very Big Kingdom

AN EMPIRE

AN EMPIRE The lions that we see on our notes and coins have a long history. They were carved in stone and placed on top of a massive stone pillar at Sarnath (about which you read in Chapter 6(

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Class 6 / History / Ashoka, The Emperor Who Gave Up War / A Very Big Kingdom

RULING THE EMPIRE

RULING THE EMPIRE As the empire was so large, different parts were ruled differently. The area around Pataliputra was under the direct control of the emperor. This meant that officials were appoint

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Class 6 / History / Ashoka, The Emperor Who Gave Up War / A Very Big Kingdom

THE EMPEROR AND THE CAPITAL CITY

THE EMPEROR AND THE CAPITAL CITY Megasthenes was an ambassador who was sent to the court of Chandragupta by the Greek ruler of West Asia named Seleucus Nicator. Megasthenes wrote an account abou

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Class 6 / History / Ashoka, The Emperor Who Gave Up War / Ashoka - The Great

ASHOKA, A UNIQUE RULER

ASHOKA, A UNIQUE RULER The most famous Mauryan ruler was Ashoka. He was the first ruler who tried to take his message to the people through inscriptions. Most of Ashoka’s inscriptions were in

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Class 6 / History / Ashoka, The Emperor Who Gave Up War / Ashoka - The Great

ASHOKA’S KALINGA WAR AND INSCRIPTION

ASHOKA’S KALINGA WAR AND INSCRIPTION Kalinga is the ancient name of coastal Orissa. Ashoka fought a war to conquer Kalinga. However, he was so horrified when he saw the violence and bloodshed

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Class 6 / History / Ashoka, The Emperor Who Gave Up War / Ashoka - The Great

WHAT WAS ASHOKAS’S DHAMMA

WHAT WAS ASHOKAS’S DHAMMA Ashoka’s dhamma did not involve the worship of a god, or performance of a sacrifice. He felt that just as a father tries to teach his children, he had a duty t

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Class 6 / History / Ashoka, The Emperor Who Gave Up War / Ashoka - The Great

ASHOKA’S MESSAGES

ASHOKA’S MESSAGES “People perform a variety of rituals when they fall ill when their children get married when children are born, or when they go on a journey. These rituals are not

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Class 6 / History / Vital Villages, Thriving Towns / Agriculture and Irrigation

TOOLS AND TRANSPLANTATION

TOOLS AND TRANSPLANTATION We often take the use of iron for granted today. Things made of iron (and steel) are a part of our daily lives. The use of iron began in the subcontinent around 3000 years

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Class 6 / History / Vital Villages, Thriving Towns / Who Lived in The Villages ?

THE VILLAGE HEADMAN

THE VILLAGE HEADMAN There were at least three different kinds of people living in most villages in the southern and northern parts of the subcontinent. In the Tamil region, large landowners were k

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Class 6 / History / Vital Villages, Thriving Towns / Finding Out About Cities

STORIES AND TRAVELLERS

STORIES AND TRAVELLERS You may have heard of the Jatakas. These were stories that were probably composed by ordinary people, and then written down and preserved by Buddhist monks. Here is part of

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Class 6 / History / Vital Villages, Thriving Towns / Finding Out About Cities

SCULPTURE AND ARCHAEOLOGY

SCULPTURE AND ARCHAEOLOGY We can use other kinds of evidence to find out about life in some of these early cities. Sculptors carved scenes depicting peoples’ lives in towns and villages, as

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Class 6 / History / Vital Villages, Thriving Towns / Means of Exchange

COINS

COINS You may have noticed how wealth is measured in terms of coins in the story (The clever poor man). Archaeologists have found several thousands of coins belonging to this period. The earliest

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Class 6 / History / Vital Villages, Thriving Towns / Cities With Many Functions

MATHURA – AN EXAMPLE

MATHURA – AN EXAMPLE Very often, a single town was important for a variety of reasons. Let us look at the example of Mathura (see in Map). Mathura has been an important settlement for

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Class 6 / History / Vital Villages, Thriving Towns / Crafts and Crafts Persons

ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE FOR CRAFTS

ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE FOR CRAFTS We also have archaeological evidence for crafts. These include extremely fine pottery, known as the Northern Black Polished Ware (NBPW). It gets its name from th

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Class 6 / History / Vital Villages, Thriving Towns / Crafts and Crafts Persons

RULES FOR SPINNING AND WEAVING

RULES FOR SPINNING AND WEAVING These rules are from the Arthashastra, mentioned in Chapter 7(ASHOKA, THE EMPEROR WHO GAVE UP WAR). They describe how spinning and weaving could be done in workshops

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Class 6 / History / Vital Villages, Thriving Towns / Arikamedu

ARIKAMEDU – ITS CLOSER LOOK

ARIKAMEDU – ITS CLOSER LOOK Between 2200 and 1900 years ago, Arikamedu was a coastal settlement where ships unloaded goods from distant lands. A massive brick structure, which may have been

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Class 6 / History / Traders, Kings And Pilgrims / Finding Trade and Traders

EVIDENCE OF TRADE AND TRADERS

EVIDENCE OF TRADE AND TRADERS You read about the Northern Black Polished Ware in Chapter 8(VITAL VILLAGES, THRIVING TOWNS). This fine pottery, especially bowls and plates, were found from several a

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Class 6 / History / Traders, Kings And Pilgrims / Costal Kingdoms

STORY OF CHOLAS, CHERAS, AND PANDYAS

STORY OF CHOLAS, CHERAS, AND PANDYAS The southern half of the subcontinent is marked by a long coastline, and with hills, plateaus, and river valleys. Amongst the river valleys, that of the Kaveri

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Class 6 / History / Traders, Kings And Pilgrims / Costal Kingdoms

SATAVAHANAS

SATAVAHANAS Around 200 years later a dynasty known as the Satavahanas became powerful in western India (see Map). The most important ruler of the Satavahanas was Gautamiputra Shri Satakarni. We kno

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Class 6 / History / Traders, Kings And Pilgrims / The Story of the Silk Route

INVENTION OF SILK

INVENTION OF SILK The rich, glossy colours of silk, as well as its smooth texture, make it a highly valued fabric in most societies. Making silk is a complicated process. Raw silk has to be extract

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Class 6 / History / Traders, Kings And Pilgrims / The Story of the Silk Route

SILK ROUTE

SILK ROUTE Look at Map which shows the Silk Route and its branches. Some kings tried to control large portions of the route. This was because they could benefit from taxes, tributes, and gifts that

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Class 6 / History / Traders, Kings And Pilgrims / The Spread of Buddhism

FROM BIOGRAPHY TO STATUES

FROM BIOGRAPHY TO STATUES The most famous Kushana ruler was Kanishka, who ruled around 1900 years ago. He organised a Buddhist council, where scholars met and discussed important matters. Ashvag

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Class 6 / History / Traders, Kings And Pilgrims / The Spread of Buddhism

BODHISATTVAS

BODHISATTVAS The second change was a belief in Bodhisattvas. These were supposed to be persons who had attained enlightenment. Once they attained enlightenment, they could live in complete iso

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Class 6 / History / Traders, Kings And Pilgrims / The Quest of The Pilgrims

JOURNEY OF FA XIAN, XUAN ZANG AND I-QING

JOURNEY OF FA XIAN, XUAN ZANG, AND I-QING As traders journeyed to distant lands in caravans and ships, pilgrims often travelled with them. The best-known of these are the Chinese Buddhist pilgri

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Class 6 / History / Traders, Kings And Pilgrims / The Quest of The Pilgrims

NALANDA – A UNIQUE LEARNING CENTER

NALANDA – A UNIQUE LEARNING CENTER Xuan Zang and other pilgrims spent time studying in Nalanda, (Bihar) the most famous Buddhist monastery of the period. This is how he describes it: &ldqu

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Class 6 / History / Traders, Kings And Pilgrims / The Beginning of Bhakti

IDEA OF BHAKTI

IDEA OF BHAKTI This was also the time when the worship of certain deities, which became a central feature of later Hinduism, gained in importance. These deities included Shiva, Vishnu, and goddesse

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Class 6 / History / Traders, Kings And Pilgrims / The Beginning of Bhakti

BHAKTI AND POEM BY A BHAKTA

BHAKTI AND POEM BY A BHAKTA Bhakti Bhakti comes from the Sanskrit term bhaj meaning ‘to divide or share.’ This suggests an intimate, two-way relationship between the deity and the de

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Class 6 / History / New Empires And Kingdoms / Prashastis and What They Tell Us ?

SAMUDRAGUPTA’S PRASHASTI

SAMUDRAGUPTA’S PRASHASTI Arvind was supposed to be acting as Samudragupta, a famous ruler of a dynasty known as the Guptas. We know about Samudragupta from a long inscription, inscribed on th

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Class 6 / History / New Empires And Kingdoms / Prashastis and What They Tell Us ?

SAMUDRAGUPTA’S POLICIES

SAMUDRAGUPTA’S POLICIES If you look at Map, you will notice an area shaded in green. You will also find a series of red dots along the east coast. And you will find areas marked in purple an

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Class 6 / History / New Empires And Kingdoms / Prashastis and What They Tell Us ?

Genealogies

GENEALOGIES Most prashastis also mention the ancestors of the ruler. This one mentions Samudragupta’s great grandfather, grandfather, father and mother. His mother, Kumara Devi, belonged to t

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Class 6 / History / New Empires And Kingdoms / Harshavardhana and The Harshacharita

BIOGRPHY – THE HARSHACHARITA

BIOGRAPHY – THE HARSHACHARITA While we can learn about the Gupta rulers from their inscriptions and coins, we can find out about some kings from biographies. Harshavardhana, who ruled nearly

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Class 6 / History / New Empires And Kingdoms / The Pallavas, Chalukyas and Pulakeshin’s Prashasti

PALLAVAS VS CHALUKYAS

PALLAVAS VS CHALUKYAS The Pallavas and Chalukyas were the most important ruling dynasties in south India during this period. The kingdom of the Pallavas spread from the region around their capital,

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Class 6 / History / New Empires And Kingdoms / The Pallavas, Chalukyas and Pulakeshin’s Prashasti

PULAKESHIN II BIOGRAPHY

PULAKESHIN II BIOGRAPHY The best-known Chalukya ruler was Pulakeshin II. We know about him from a prashasti, composed by his court poet Ravikirti. This tells us about his ancestors, who are traced

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Class 6 / History / New Empires And Kingdoms / Administration Of Kingdoms

STEPS ADOPTED 

STEPS ADOPTED  As in the case of earlier kings, land revenue remained important for these rulers, and the village remained the basic unit of administration. There were some new developments a

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Class 6 / History / New Empires And Kingdoms / Administration Of Kingdoms

A NEW KIND OF ARMY

A NEW KIND OF ARMY Like earlier rulers, some of these kings maintained a well-organised army, with elephants, chariots, cavalry and foot soldiers. Besides, there were military leaders who provided

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Class 6 / History / New Empires And Kingdoms / Administration Of Kingdoms

ASSEMBLIES

ASSEMBLIES The inscriptions of the Pallavas mention a number of local assemblies. These included the sabha, which was an assembly of brahmin landowners. This assembly functioned through subcommitte

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Class 6 / History / New Empires And Kingdoms / Administration Of Kingdoms

ORDINARY PEOPLE

ORDINARY PEOPLE We can catch an occasional glimpse of the lives of ordinary people from plays, and other accounts. Let us look at some of these. 1. Kalidasa is known for his plays depicting life

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Class 6 / History / New Empires And Kingdoms / Administration Of Kingdoms

THE KING’S ARMY

THE KING’S ARMY Banabhatta provides us with a vivid picture of the king’s army on the move: The king travelled with an enormous amount of equipment. Apart from weapons, there were th

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Class 6 / History / Buildings, Paintings And Books / History of Metallurgy

ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXCAVATIONS

ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXCAVATIONS Ancient Indian metallurgists made major contributions to the metallurgical history of the world. Archaeological excavations have shown that the Harappans were master craf

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Class 6 / History / Buildings, Paintings And Books / History of Metallurgy

THE IRON PILLAR ON PILLAR

THE IRON PILLAR ON PILLAR The iron pillar at Mehrauli, Delhi, is a remarkable example of the skill of Indian craftspersons. It is made of iron, 7.2. m high, and weighs over 3 tonnes. It was made ab

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Class 6 / History / Buildings, Paintings And Books / Buildings in Brick and Stone

STUPAS

STUPAS The skills of our craftspersons are also apparent in the buildings that have survived, such as stupas. The word stupa means a mound. While there are several kinds of stupas, round and tall,

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Class 6 / History / Buildings, Paintings And Books / Buildings in Brick and Stone

GARBHAGRIHA, SHIKHARA AND MANDAPA

GARBHAGRIHA, SHIKHARA AND MANDAPA Some of the earliest Hindu temples were also built at this time. Deities such as Vishnu, Shiva, and Durga were worshipped in these shrines. The most important part

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Class 6 / History / Buildings, Paintings And Books / How were Stupas and Temples Built ?

AN EXPENSIVE AFFAIR

AN EXPENSIVE AFFAIR There were several stages in building a stupa or a temple. Usually, kings or queens decided to build these as it was an expensive affair. First, the good quality stone had to be

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Class 6 / History / Buildings, Paintings And Books / How were Stupas and Temples Built ?

PAINTING

PAINTING Ajanta is a place where several caves were hollowed out of the hills over centuries. Most of these were monasteries for Buddhist monks, and some of them were decorated with paintings. Here

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Class 6 / History / Buildings, Paintings And Books / The World of Books

SILAPPADIKARAM AND MANIMEKALAI

SILAPPADIKARAM AND MANIMEKALAI Some of the best–known epics were written during this period. Epics are grand, long compositions, about heroic men and women, and include stories about gods.

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Class 6 / History / Buildings, Paintings And Books / The World of Books

MEGHADUTA

MEGHADUTA Other writers, such as Kalidasa, (about whom you read in Chapter 10(NEW EMPIRES AND KINGDOMS)) wrote in Sanskrit. Here is a verse from Kalidasa’s best-known poem, the Meghaduta,

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Class 6 / History / Buildings, Paintings And Books / The World of Books

RECORDING AND PRESERVING OLD STORIES

RECORDING AND PRESERVING OLD STORIES A number of Hindu religious stories that were in circulation earlier were written down around the same time. These include the Puranas. Purana literally means o

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Class 6 / History / Buildings, Paintings And Books / The World of Books

STORIES BY ORDINARY PEOPLE – THE MONKEY KING

STORIES BY ORDINARY PEOPLE – THE MONKEY KING Ordinary people also told stories, composed poems and songs, sang, danced, and performed plays. Some of these are preserved in collections of stor

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Class 6 / History / Buildings, Paintings And Books / The World of Books

WRITING BOOKS ON SCIENCE

WRITING BOOKS ON SCIENCE This was also the time when Aryabhata, a mathematician, and astronomer, wrote a book in Sanskrit known as the Aryabhatiyam. He stated that day and night were caused by the

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Class 6 / Social And Political Life / Diversity and Discrimination / Difference and Prejudice

WHAT IS DIFFERENCE AND PREJUDICE?

WHAT IS DIFFERENCE AND PREJUDICE? There are many things that make us what we are – how we live, the languages we speak, what we eat, wear, the games we play, and the things we celebrate. A

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Class 6 / Social And Political Life / Diversity and Discrimination / Difference and Prejudice

CREATING STEREOTYPES

CREATING STEREOTYPES All of us are familiar with gender differences. What does it mean to be a boy or a girl? Many of you would say, "We are born as boys and girls. It is a given. What is ther

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Class 6 / Social And Political Life / Diversity and Discrimination / Inequality and Discrimination

REASONS FOR INEQUALITY AND DISCRIMINATION

REASONS FOR INEQUALITY AND DISCRIMINATION Discrimination happens when people act on their prejudices or stereotypes. If you do something to put other people down, if you stop them from taking part

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Class 6 / Social And Political Life / Diversity and Discrimination / Inequality and Discrimination

ON BEING DISCRIMINATED AGAINST

ON BEING DISCRIMINATED AGAINST People are engaged in different kinds of work like teaching, carpentry, pottery, weaving, fishing, farming, etc. to earn a livelihood. However, certain kinds of work

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Class 6 / Social And Political Life / Diversity and Discrimination / Inequality and Discrimination

ABOUT BHIM RAO AMBEDKAR

ABOUT BHIM RAO AMBEDKAR Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar (1891-1956) is considered the father of the Indian Constitution and is also the best-known leader of the Dalits. Dr. Ambedkar fought for the rights of

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Class 6 / Social And Political Life / Diversity and Discrimination / Inequality and Discrimination

SAD JOURNEY OF AMBEDKAR

SAD JOURNEY OF AMBEDKAR Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar, one of the greatest leaders of India, shares his first experience of caste-based discrimination, which took place in 1901 when he was just nine years o

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Class 6 / Social And Political Life / Diversity and Discrimination / Striving for Equality

INEQUALITY VS EQUALITY

INEQUALITY VS EQUALITY The struggle for freedom from British rule also included within it the struggle of large groups of people who not only fought against the British but also fought to be treate

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Class 6 / Social And Political Life / Urban Livelihoods / Working on the Street

LIFE ON THE STREET

LIFE ON THE STREET There are more than five thousand towns and twenty-seven big cities in India. Big cities like Chennai, Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, etc. have more than a million people living and wor

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Class 6 / Social And Political Life / Urban Livelihoods / Working on the Street

LIFE OF BACHCHU MANJHI

LIFE OF BACHCHU MANJHI I, BACHCHU MANJHI come from a village in Bihar where I worked as a mason. My wife and three children live in the village. We don't own land. In the village, I did not get

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Class 6 / Social And Political Life / Urban Livelihoods / Working on the Street

VENDORS AND SERVICES

VENDORS AND SERVICES Provide a service Like Bachchu Manjhi a large number of people in the city work on the streets. In a survey of Ahmedabad city, it was found that 12 percent of all the worker

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Class 6 / Social And Political Life / Urban Livelihoods / Market

IN THE MARKET

IN THE MARKET When we reached the market the shops were just beginning to open. But the place was already crowded because of the festival season. There were rows and rows of shops selling sweets, t

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Class 6 / Social And Political Life / Urban Livelihoods / Market

HARPREET AND VANDANA: BUSINESSPERSONS

HARPREET AND VANDANA: BUSINESSPERSONS My father and uncle worked in a small shop. During festival times and on Sundays my mother and I helped them in the shop. I started working there only after I

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Class 6 / Social And Political Life / Urban Livelihoods / Work in the Factory

IN THE FACTORY – WORKSHOP AREA

IN THE FACTORY – WORKSHOP AREA I wanted to have zari work done on one of my dresses which I needed for a special occasion. My cousin said that she knew Nirmala who works in a garment factory.

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Class 6 / Social And Political Life / Urban Livelihoods / Office Work

WORKS IN THE OFFICE

WORKS IN THE OFFICE My aunt, Sudha works as a Marketing Manager. She had asked us to reach her office before 5.30 p.m. We thought we'd get late so we took an autorickshaw that managed to get us

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Class 6 / Social And Political Life / Rural Livelihoods / Kalpattu Village

ABOUT KALPATTU VILLAGE

ABOUT KALPATTU VILLAGE Kalpattu is a village that's close to the sea coast in Tamil Nadu. People here do many kinds of work. As in other villages, here too there is non-farm work such as making

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Class 6 / Social And Political Life / Rural Livelihoods / Kalpattu Village

THULASI

THULASI All of us here work on Ramalingam's land. He has twenty acres of paddy fields in Kalpattu. Even before I was married I used to work on paddy fields in my parental village. I work from 8

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Class 6 / Social And Political Life / Rural Livelihoods / Kalpattu Village

SEKAR

SEKAR We have to carry this paddy to our house. My family has just finished harvesting our field. We don't own much land, only two acres. We manage to do all the work on our own. At times, espe

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Class 6 / Social And Political Life / Rural Livelihoods / Kalpattu Village

RAMALINGAM AND KARUTHAMMA

RAMALINGAM AND KARUTHAMMA In addition to land, Ramalingam’s family owns a rice mill and a shop selling seeds, pesticides, etc. For the rice mill, they used some of their own money and also bo

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Class 6 / Social And Political Life / Rural Livelihoods / Kalpattu Village

ON BEING IN DEBT

ON BEING IN DEBT As you've read previous topics, very often farmers like Sekar need to borrow money to purchase basic things like seeds, fertilisers, and pesticides. Often they borrow this mone

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Class 6 / Social And Political Life / Rural Livelihoods / Agricultural Labourers and Farmers in India

FAMILIES OF AGRICULTURAL LABOURERS AND FARMERS

FAMILIES OF AGRICULTURAL LABOURERS AND FARMERS In Kalpattu village there are agricultural labourers like Thulasi, and many small farmers like Sekar, and a few big farmers like Ramalingam. In India,

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Class 6 / Social And Political Life / Rural Livelihoods / Agricultural Labourers and Farmers in India

ARUNA AND PAARIVELAN

ARUNA AND PAARIVELAN In the coastal areas, we find fishing villages. Let us find out more about the lives of a fishing family by reading about Aruna and Paarivelan who live in Pudupet, a village cl

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Class 6 / Social And Political Life / Rural Livelihoods / Agricultural Labourers and Farmers in India

RURAL LIVELIHOODS

RURAL LIVELIHOODS People in rural areas earn their living in various ways. Some work on farms while others earn their living on non- farm activities. Working on farms involves operations such as pr

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Class 6 / Social And Political Life / Urban Administration / Introduction to Urban Administration

ROLE OF URBAN ADMINISTRATION

ROLE OF URBAN ADMINISTRATION A city is much bigger than a village and more spread out. A city has crowded markets, many buses and cars, water and electricity facilities, traffic control, and hospit

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Class 6 / Social And Political Life / Urban Administration / Introduction to Urban Administration

THE WARD COUNCILLOR AND ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF

THE WARD COUNCILLOR AND ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF "Yasmin Khala, I'm curious. Who decides where a park should go to? Did you have to make interesting decisions like this when you worked in the

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Class 6 / Social And Political Life / Urban Administration / Introduction to Urban Administration

HOW DOES THE MUNICIPAL CORPORATION GET ITS MONEY?

HOW DOES THE MUNICIPAL CORPORATION GET ITS MONEY? Providing and running so many services requires a lot of money. The Municipal Corporation collects this in different ways. A tax is a sum of money

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Class 6 / Social And Political Life / Urban Administration / A Community Protest

GANGABAI’S STORY

GANGABAI’S STORY Yasmin Khala continued, "The women were very unhappy about the situation and even came to me for advice.  I said I could try and speak with some officers in the dep

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Class 6 / Social And Political Life / Urban Administration / A Community Protest

PALGUE SCARE IN SURAT

PALGUE SCARE IN SURAT The city of Surat had a plague scare in 1994. Surat was one of the dirtiest cities in India. Houses, hotels, and restaurants would dump their garbage into the nearest drain or

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Class 6 / Social And Political Life / Rural Administration / Introduction to Rural Administration

A QUARREL IN THE VILLAGE

A QUARREL IN THE VILLAGE Mohan is a farmer. His family owns a small agricultural field, which they have been farming for many years. Next to his field is Raghu's land which is separated from hi

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Class 6 / Social And Political Life / Rural Administration / Introduction to Rural Administration

AREA OF THE POLICE STATION

AREA OF THE POLICE STATION On the way to the police station, one of the neighbours asked, "Why don't we spend some more money and go to the main police station in the town?" "

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Class 6 / Social And Political Life / Rural Administration / Introduction to Rural Administration

THE WORK AT THE POLICE STATION

THE WORK AT THE POLICE STATION When they reached the police station Mohan went to the person in charge (Station House Officer or S.H.O.) and told him what had happened. He also said that he wanted

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Class 6 / Social And Political Life / Rural Administration / Patwari

MAINTENANCE OF LAND RECORDS

MAINTENANCE OF LAND RECORDS Measuring land and keeping land records is the main work of the Patwari. The Patwari is known by different names in different states - in some villages, such officers ar

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Class 6 / Social And Political Life / Rural Administration / Patwari

SUPERVISION OF PATWARI WORKS

SUPERVISION OF PATWARI WORKS Keeping track of all the crops grown in this area, organising the collection of land revenue from the farmers is the work of the revenue department of the government. S

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Class 6 / Social And Political Life / Rural Administration / Hindu Succession Amendment Act, 2005

A NEW LAW

A NEW LAW (Hindu Succession Amendment Act, 2005) Often when we think of farmers who own land, we think of men. Women are seen as people who work in the fields, but not as people who own agricult

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Class 6 / Social And Political Life / Panchayati Raj / Gram Sabha

WHAT IS GRAM SABHA?

WHAT IS GRAM SABHA? The Gram Sabha is a meeting of all adults who live in the area covered by a Panchayat. This could be only one village or a few villages. In some states, as in the example above,

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Class 6 / Social And Political Life / Panchayati Raj / Gram Sabha

PROBLEMS USUALLY DISCUSSED

PROBLEMS USUALLY DISCUSSED It's a special day today! Everyone's rushing to get to the Gram Sabha!  Do you know why? Because the Gram Sabha is holding its first meeting after the electi

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Class 6 / Social And Political Life / Panchayati Raj / The Gram Panchayat

ROLE OF THE GRAM PANCHAYAT

ROLE OF THE GRAM PANCHAYAT The Gram Panchayat meets regularly and one of its main tasks is to implement development programmes for all villages that come under it. As you have seen, the work of the

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Class 6 / Social And Political Life / Panchayati Raj / The Gram Panchayat

THREE LEVELS OF PANCHAYATS

THREE LEVELS OF PANCHAYATS After reading about what happened in the Gram Sabha and the Gram Panchayat in Hardas village you can understand that the Panchayati Raj System is a process through which

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Class 6 / Social And Political Life / Key Elements of a Democratic Goverment / South Africa - The Democratic Country

NELSON MANDELA VS APARTHEID LAWS

NELSON MANDELA VS APARTHEID LAWS South Africa is a country that has people of several races. There are black people who belong to South Africa, whites who came there to settle, and Indians who came

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Class 6 / Social And Political Life / Key Elements of a Democratic Goverment / Elections

PARTICIPATION

PARTICIPATION Why do we have regular elections? You've already read in the previous chapter that people make decisions in a democracy. Through voting in elections, people elect leaders to repre

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Class 6 / Social And Political Life / Key Elements of a Democratic Goverment / Elections

OTHER WAYS OF PARTICIPATING

OTHER WAYS OF PARTICIPATING Elections are usually held once in five years. Besides voting, there are other ways of participating in the process of government. People participate by taking an intere

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Class 6 / Social And Political Life / Key Elements of a Democratic Goverment / Resolving Conflicts

ROLE OF GOVERNMENT

ROLE OF GOVERNMENT In Maya's story, you read about how conflicts can often lead to violence and death because one group decides that it is all right to use force to prevent the other group from

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Class 6 / Social And Political Life / Key Elements of a Democratic Goverment / Resolving Conflicts

EQUALITY AND JUSTICE

EQUALITY AND JUSTICE One of the key ideas of a democratic government is its commitment to equality and justice. Equality and justice are inseparable. The earlier practice of untouchability is no

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Class 6 / Social And Political Life / What is Government? / Government – The Decision Maker

ROLE OF GOVERNMENT

ROLE OF GOVERNMENT Every country needs a government to make decisions and get things done. These can be decisions about where to build roads and schools, or how to reduce the price of onions when t

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Class 6 / Social And Political Life / What is Government? / Government – The Decision Maker

LAWS AND THE GOVERNMENT

LAWS AND THE GOVERNMENT The government makes laws and everyone who lives in the country has to follow these. This is the only way governments can function. Just like the government has the power to

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Class 6 / Social And Political Life / What is Government? / Levels of Government

LOCAL, STATE AND CENTRAL LEVEL

LOCAL, STATE AND CENTRAL LEVEL Now that you know that the government is responsible for so many different things, can you think of how it manages to do all these? The government works at different

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Class 6 / Social And Political Life / What is Government? / Types of Government

DEMOCRACY VS MONARCHY

DEMOCRACY VS MONARCHY Who gives the government this power to make decisions and enforce laws? The answer to this question depends on the type of government there is in a country. In a democracy,

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Class 6 / Social And Political Life / What is Government? / Types of Government

DEMOCRATIC GOVERNMENTS

DEMOCRATIC GOVERNMENTS India is a democracy. This achievement is the result of a long and eventful struggle of the Indian people. There are other places in the world where people have also struggle

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Class 6 / Social And Political Life / Understanding Diversity / Introduction to Diversity

WHAT IS DIVERSITY?

WHAT IS DIVERSITY? Look around you in the classroom: do you see anyone who looks exactly like you do? In this topic, you will learn that people are different from each other in many ways. Not only

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Class 6 / Social And Political Life / Understanding Diversity / Making Friends

A NEW PAPER STORY

A NEW PAPER STORY Do you think it would be easy for you to make friends with someone who was very different from you? Read the following story and think about this. I had meant it as a joke. A j

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Class 6 / Social And Political Life / Understanding Diversity / Making Friends

JOURNEY OF SAMIR EK AND SAMIR DO

JOURNEY OF SAMIR EK AND SAMIR DO While Samir Ek is more familiar with English, Samir Do speaks Hindi. Although they both are more at home in different languages they still communicated with each ot

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Class 6 / Social And Political Life / Understanding Diversity / Making Friends

WHY SAMIR DO A PAPER BOY?

WHY SAMIR DO A PAPERBOY? Samir Do did not have the opportunity to attend school. Perhaps you've noticed that there are several people in the area where you live who are poor and who don't h

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Class 6 / Social And Political Life / Understanding Diversity / What does Diversity Add to Our Lives?

STORIES THAT TEACH

STORIES THAT TEACH Just like Samir Ek and Samir Do became friends, you might have friends who are very different from you. You have probably eaten different kinds of food in their homes, celebrated

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Class 6 / Social And Political Life / Understanding Diversity / Diversity In India

INTERMIXING OF CULTURES

INTERMIXING OF CULTURES India is a country of many diversities. We speak different languages, have various types of food, celebrate different festivals, practice different religions. But actually,

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Class 6 / Social And Political Life / Understanding Diversity / Diversity In India

HISTORICAL AND GEOGRAPHICAL FACTORS

HISTORICAL AND GEOGRAPHICAL FACTORS The history of many places shows us how many different cultural influences have helped to shape life and culture there. Thus regions became very diverse because

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Class 6 / Social And Political Life / Understanding Diversity / Unity In Diversity

INDIA’S UNITY IN DIVERSITY

INDIA’S UNITY IN DIVERSITY India's diversity has always been recognised as a source of its strength. When the British ruled India, women, and men from different cultural, religious, and r

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Class 10 / Chemistry / Periodic Classification of Elements / Introduction to Periodic Classification

Introduction of Classification of Elements

INTRODUCTION   In Class IX we have learnt that matter around us is present in the form of elements, compounds, and mixtures and the elements contain atoms of only one type. Do you know h

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Class 10 / Chemistry / Periodic Classification of Elements / Introduction to Periodic Classification

Need of Classification

Why Classify Elements?   We have been learning how various things or living beings can be classified on the basis of their properties. Even in other situations, we come across instances o

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Class 10 / Chemistry / Periodic Classification of Elements / Early Attempts of Classification

Dobereiner's Law of Triads

Döbereiner’s Triads About Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner (1780-1849) Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner studied as a pharmacist at Münchberg in Germany, and then studied chemis

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Class 10 / History / The Rise Of Nationalism In Europe / Democratic and social Republics

ART OF FREDERIC SORRIEU

ART OF FREDERIC SORRIEU In 1848, Frederic Sorrieu, a French artist, prepared a series of four prints visualising his dream of a world made up of ‘democratic and social Republics’, as he

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Class 10 / History / The Rise Of Nationalism In Europe / The French Revolution and the Idea of the Nation

THE FRENCH REVOLUTION

THE FRENCH REVOLUTION The first clear expression of nationalism came with the French Revolution in 1789. France, as you would remember, was a full-fledged territorial state in 1789 under the rule o

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Class 10 / Chemistry / Periodic Classification of Elements / Early Attempts of Classification

Newland's Law of Octaves

Newlands’ Law of Octaves The attempts of Döbereiner encouraged other chemists to correlate the properties of elements with their atomic masses. In 1866, John Newlands, an English scienti

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Class 10 / History / The Rise Of Nationalism In Europe / The Making of Nationalism in Europe

HISTORY OF EUROPE

HISTORY OF EUROPE What we know today as Germany, Italy, and Switzerland were divided into kingdoms, duchies and cantons whose rulers had their autonomous territories. Eastern and Central Europe wer

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Class 10 / History / The Rise Of Nationalism In Europe / The Making of Nationalism in Europe

THE ARISTOCRACY AND THE NEW MIDDLE CLASS

THE ARISTOCRACY AND THE NEW MIDDLE CLASS Socially and politically, a landed aristocracy was the dominant class on the continent. The members of this class were united by a common way of life that c

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Class 10 / History / The Rise Of Nationalism In Europe / The Making of Nationalism in Europe

WHAT DID LIBERAL NATIONALISM STAND FOR?

WHAT DID LIBERAL NATIONALISM STAND FOR? Ideas of national unity in early-nineteenth-century Europe were closely allied to the ideology of liberalism. The term ‘liberalism’ derives from

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Class 10 / History / The Rise Of Nationalism In Europe / The Making of Nationalism in Europe

A NEW CONSERVATISM AFTER 1815

A NEW CONSERVATISM AFTER 1815 Following the defeat of Napoleon in 1815, European governments were driven by a spirit of conservatism. Conservatives believed that established, traditional institutio

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Class 10 / History / The Rise Of Nationalism In Europe / The Making of Nationalism in Europe

THE REVOLUTIONARIES

THE REVOLUTIONARIES During the years following 1815, the fear of repression drove many liberal-nationalists undergrounds. Secret societies sprang up in many European states to train revolutionaries

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Class 10 / History / The Rise Of Nationalism In Europe / The Age of Revolutions: 1830-1848

TREATY OF CONSTANTINOPLE

TREATY OF CONSTANTINOPLE As conservative regimes tried to consolidate their power, liberalism and nationalism came to be increasingly associated with the revolution in many regions of Europe such a

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Class 10 / History / The Rise Of Nationalism In Europe / The Age of Revolutions: 1830-1848

THE ROMANTIC IMAGINATION AND NATIONAL FEELING

THE ROMANTIC IMAGINATION AND NATIONAL FEELING The development of nationalism did not come about only through wars and territorial expansion. Culture played an important role in creating the idea of

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Class 10 / Chemistry / Periodic Classification of Elements / Mendeleev's Periodic Table

Explanation of Mendeleev's Periodic Table

MAKING ORDER OUT OF CHAOS – MENDELEEV’S PERIODIC TABLE   About Dmitri lvanovich Mendeléev (1834-1907)     Dmitri lvanovich Mendeléev was bor

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Class 10 / History / The Rise Of Nationalism In Europe / The Age of Revolutions: 1830-1848

HUNGER, HARDSHIP AND POPULAR REVOLT

HUNGER, HARDSHIP AND POPULAR REVOLT The 1830s were years of great economic hardship in Europe. The first half of the nineteenth century saw an enormous increase in population all over Europe. In mo

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Class 10 / History / The Rise Of Nationalism In Europe / The Age of Revolutions: 1830-1848

1848: THE REVOLUTION OF THE LIBERALS

1848: THE REVOLUTION OF THE LIBERALS Parallel to the revolts of the poor, unemployed and starving peasants and workers in many European countries in the year 1848, a revolution led by the educated

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Class 10 / History / The Rise Of Nationalism In Europe / The Age of Revolutions: 1830-1848

LIBERTY AND EQUALITY OF WOMEN

LIBERTY AND EQUALITY OF WOMEN How were liberty and equality for women to be defined? The liberal politician Carl Welcker, an elected member of the Frankfurt Parliament, expressed the following v

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Class 10 / History / The Rise Of Nationalism In Europe / The Making of Germany and Italy

GERMANY – CAN THE ARMY BE THE ARCHITECT OF A NATION?

GERMANY – CAN THE ARMY BE THE ARCHITECT OF A NATION? After 1848, nationalism in Europe moved away from its association with democracy and revolution. Nationalist sentiments were often mobilis

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Class 10 / History / The Rise Of Nationalism In Europe / The Making of Germany and Italy

ITALY UNIFIED

ITALY UNIFIED Like Germany, Italy too had a long history of political fragmentation. Italians were scattered over several dynastic states as well as the multi-national Habsburg Empire. During the m

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Class 10 / History / The Rise Of Nationalism In Europe / The Making of Germany and Italy

THE STRANGE CASE OF BRITAIN

THE STRANGE CASE OF BRITAIN The model of the nation or the nation-state, some scholars have argued, is Great Britain. In Britain, the formation of the nation-state was not the result of a sudden up

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Class 10 / Chemistry / Periodic Classification of Elements / Mendeleev's Periodic Table

Achievements of Mendeleev’s Periodic Table

Achievements of Mendeleev’s Periodic Table While developing the Periodic Table, there were a few instances where Mendeléev had to place an element with a slightly greater atomic mass b

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Class 10 / History / The Rise Of Nationalism In Europe / Visualising the Nation

ALLEGORY OF THE NATION

ALLEGORY OF THE NATION While it is easy enough to represent a ruler through a portrait or a statue, how does one go about giving a face to a nation? Artists in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuri

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Class 10 / History / The Rise Of Nationalism In Europe / Nationalism and Imperialism

BALKAN – THE ORIGIN OF FIRST WORLD WAR

BALKAN – THE ORIGIN OF FIRST WORLD WAR By the last quarter of the nineteenth-century nationalism no longer retained its idealistic liberal-democratic sentiment of the first half of the centur

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Class 10 / Chemistry / Periodic Classification of Elements / Mendeleev's Periodic Table

Limitations of Mendeleev's Classification

LIMITATIONS OF MENDELEEV’S CLASSIFICATION The electronic configuration of hydrogen resembles that of alkali metals. Like alkali metals, hydrogen combines with halogens, oxygen, and sulphur to

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Class 10 / Chemistry / Periodic Classification of Elements / The Modern Periodic Table

Introduction to Modern Periodic Table

MAKING ORDER OUT OF CHAOS – THE MODERN PERIODIC TABLE   In 1913, Henry Moseley showed that the atomic number (symbolised as Z) of an element is a more fundamental property than i

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Class 10 / Chemistry / Periodic Classification of Elements / The Modern Periodic Table

Position of Elements in the Modern Periodic Table

Position of Elements in the Modern Periodic Table The Modern Periodic Table has 18 vertical columns known as ‘groups’ and 7 horizontal rows known as ‘periods’. Let us see wh

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Class 10 / Chemistry / Periodic Classification of Elements / Trends in the Modern Periodic Table

Valency

VALENCY As you know, the valency of an element is determined by the number of valence electrons present in the outermost shell of its atom. Activity 5.6 How do you calculate the valency of an

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Class 10 / Chemistry / Periodic Classification of Elements / Trends in the Modern Periodic Table

Atomic Size

ATOMIC SIZE The term atomic size refers to the radius of an atom. The atomic size may be visualised as the distance between the centre of the nucleus and the outermost shell of an isolated atom. T

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Class 10 / Chemistry / Periodic Classification of Elements / Trends in the Modern Periodic Table

METALLIC AND NON-METALLIC PROPERTIES

METALLIC AND NON-METALLIC PROPERTIES   As we can see, the metals like Na and Mg are towards the left-hand side of the Periodic Table while the non-metals like sulphur and chlorine are found

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Class 10 / Chemistry / Acids, Bases and Salts / Introduction of Acids, Bases and Salts

Role of Acids, Bases and Salts in Our Daily Life

ROLE OF ACIDS, BASES AND SALTS IN OUR DAILY LIFE   You have learnt in your previous classes that the sour and bitter tastes of food are due to acids and bases, respectively, present in them

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Class 10 / History / Nationalism In India / Introduction to Nationalism in India

ROSE OF NATIONALISM IN INDIA

ROSE OF NATIONALISM IN INDIA As you have seen, modern nationalism in Europe came to be associated with the formation of nation-states. It also meant a change in people’s understanding of who

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Class 10 / Chemistry / Acids, Bases and Salts / Chemical Properties of Acids and Bases

UNDERSTANDING THE CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ACIDS AND BASES

UNDERSTANDING THE CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ACIDS AND BASES Acids and Bases in Laboratory Activity 2.1 Collect the following solutions from the science laboratory– hydrochloric acid (HCl),

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Class 10 / Chemistry / Acids, Bases and Salts / Chemical Properties of Acids and Bases

Reactions of Acids and Bases with Metals

How do Acids and Bases React with Metals?   Activity 2.3   CAUTION: This activity needs the teacher’s assistance.   Set the apparatus as shown in Fig. 2.1. &n

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Class 10 / History / Nationalism In India / The First World War, Khilafat and Non-Cooperation

FORCED RECRUITMENT

FORCED RECRUITMENT In the years after 1919, we see the national movement spreading to new areas, incorporating new social groups, and developing new modes of struggle. How do we understand these de

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Class 10 / Chemistry / Acids, Bases and Salts / Chemical Properties of Acids and Bases

Acid Reaction with Metal Carbonates and Bicarbonates

How do Metal Carbonates and Metal Hydrogen carbonates React with Acids? Activity 2.5 Figure 2.2: Passing carbon dioxide gas through a calcium hydroxide solution Take two test tubes,

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Class 10 / History / Nationalism In India / The First World War, Khilafat and Non-Cooperation

THE IDEA OF SATYAGRAHA

THE IDEA OF SATYAGRAHA Mahatma Gandhi returned to India in January 1915. As you know, he had come from South Africa where he had successfully fought the racist regime with a novel method of ma

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Class 10 / Chemistry / Acids, Bases and Salts / Chemical Properties of Acids and Bases

Reactions of Acids and Bases with Each Other

How do Acids and Bases React with each other? Activity 2.6 Take about 2 mL of dilute NaOH solution in a test tube and add two drops of phenolphthalein solution. What is the colour of the solu

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Class 10 / Chemistry / Acids, Bases and Salts / Chemical Properties of Acids and Bases

Reactions of Acids and Bases with Each Other

How do Acids and Bases React with each other? Activity 2.6 Take about 2 mL of dilute NaOH solution in a test tube and add two drops of phenolphthalein solution. What is the colour of the solu

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Class 10 / History / Nationalism In India / The First World War, Khilafat and Non-Cooperation

THE ROWLATT ACT

THE ROWLATT ACT Emboldened with this success, Gandhiji in 1919 decided to launch a nationwide satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt Act (1919). This Act had been hurriedly passed through the Impe

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Class 10 / Chemistry / Acids, Bases and Salts / Chemical Properties of Acids and Bases

Acids Reaction with Metal Oxide

The Reaction of Metallic Oxides with Acids Activity 2.7 Take a small amount of copper oxide in a beaker and add dilute hydrochloric acid slowly while stirring. Note the colour of the solution

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Class 10 / History / Nationalism In India / The First World War, Khilafat and Non-Cooperation

WHY NON-COOPERATION?

WHY NON-COOPERATION? In his famous book, Hind Swaraj (1909) Mahatma Gandhi declared that British rule was established in India with the cooperation of Indians, and had survived only becau

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Class 10 / History / Nationalism In India / Differing Strands within the Movement

THE MOVEMENT IN THE TOWNS

THE MOVEMENT IN THE TOWNS The Non-Cooperation-Khilafat Movement began in January 1921. Various social groups participated in this movement, each with its own specific aspiration. All of them respon

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Class 10 / History / Nationalism In India / Differing Strands within the Movement

REBELLION IN THE COUNTRYSIDE

REBELLION IN THE COUNTRYSIDE From the cities, the Non-Cooperation Movement spread to the countryside. It drew into its fold the struggles of peasants and tribals which were developing in diffe

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Class 10 / History / Nationalism In India / Differing Strands within the Movement

SWARAJ IN THE PLATATIONS

SWARAJ IN THE PLATATIONS Workers too had their own understanding of Mahatma Gandhi and the notion of swaraj. For plantation workers in Assam, freedom meant the right to move freely in and out of th

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Class 10 / Chemistry / Acids, Bases and Salts / Chemical Properties of Acids and Bases

Bases Reaction with Non-Metal Oxides

The Reaction of a Non-metallic Oxide with Base   You saw the reaction between carbon dioxide and calcium hydroxide (lime water) in Activity 2.5. Once we shall revise the Activity 2.5. &n

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Class 10 / Chemistry / Acids, Bases and Salts / Common of All Acids and Bases

Common of All Acids and Bases

WHAT DO ALL ACIDS AND ALL BASES HAVE IN COMMON? In Section 2.1 we have seen that all acids have similar chemical properties. We saw in Activity that all acids generate hydrogen gas on reacti

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Class 10 / History / Nationalism In India / Towards Civil Disobedience

THE INDEPENDENCE DAY PLEDGE,26 JANUARY 1930

THE INDEPENDENCE DAY PLEDGE,26 JANUARY 1930 In February 1922, Mahatma Gandhi decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement. He felt the movement was turning violent in many places and satyagrahi

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Class 10 / History / Nationalism In India / Towards Civil Disobedience

THE SALT MARCH AND THE CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE MOVEMENT

THE SALT MARCH AND THE CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE MOVEMENT   Mahatma Gandhi found in salt a powerful symbol that could unite the nation. On 31 January 1930, he sent a letter to Viceroy Irwin statin

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Class 10 / Chemistry / Acids, Bases and Salts / Common of All Acids and Bases

Acid or Base in a Water Solution

What Happens to an Acid or a Base in a Water Solution? Do acids produce ions only in an aqueous solution? Let us test this. Activity 2.9               &

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Class 10 / History / Nationalism In India / Towards Civil Disobedience

HOW PARTICIPANTS SAW THE MOVEMENT?

HOW PARTICIPANTS SAW THE MOVEMENT? Let us now look at the different social groups that participated in the Civil Disobedience Movement. Why did they join the movement? What were their ideals? What

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Class 10 / Chemistry / Acids, Bases and Salts / Strength of Acids and Bases

HOW STRONG ARE ACID OR BASE SOLUTIONS?

HOW STRONG ARE ACID OR BASE SOLUTIONS? We know how acid-base indicators can be used to distinguish between an acid and a base. We have also learnt in the previous section about dilution and a decre

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Class 10 / History / Nationalism In India / Towards Civil Disobedience

THE LIMITS OF CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE

THE LIMITS OF CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE Not all social groups were moved by the abstract concept of swaraj. One such group was the nation’s ‘untouchables’, who from around the 1930s had

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Class 10 / Chemistry / Acids, Bases and Salts / Strength of Acids and Bases

Importance of pH in Everyday Life

Importance of pH in Everyday Life Are plants and animals’ pH sensitive?   Our body works within the pH range of 7.0 to 7.8. Living organisms can survive only in a narrow range of p

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Class 10 / Chemistry / Acids, Bases and Salts / Salts

MORE ABOUT SALTS

Family of Salts In the previous sections, we have seen the formation of salts during various reactions. Let us understand more about their preparation, properties, and uses. Activity 2.13 Wri

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Class 10 / Chemistry / Acids, Bases and Salts / Salts

pH of Salts

pH of Salts Activity 2.14 Collect the following salt samples – sodium chloride, potassium nitrate, aluminium chloride, zinc sulphate, copper sulphate, sodium acetate, sodium carbonate and

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Class 10 / History / Nationalism In India / The Sense of Collective Belonging

COLLECTIVENESS IN MAKING NATIONALISM

COLLECTIVENESS IN MAKING NATIONALISM Nationalism spreads when people begin to believe that they are all part of the same nation, when they discover some unity that binds them together. But how did

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Class 10 / History / Nationalism In India / The Sense of Collective Belonging

CONCLUSION

CONCLUSION A growing anger against the colonial government was thus bringing together various groups and classes of Indians into a common struggle for freedom in the first half of the twentieth cen

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Class 10 / History / Nationalism In India / The Sense of Collective Belonging

QUIT INDIA MOVEMENT

QUIT INDIA MOVEMENT The failure of the Cripps Mission and the effects of World War II created widespread discontentment in India. This led Gandhiji to launch a movement calling for the complete wit

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Class 10 / Chemistry / Acids, Bases and Salts / Salts

Chemicals from Common Salt

Chemicals from Common Salt By now you have learnt that the salt formed by the combination of hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide solution is called sodium chloride. This is the salt that you use

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Class 10 / Chemistry / Acids, Bases and Salts / Salts

Are the Crystals of Salts really Dry?

Are the Crystals of Salts really Dry? Activity 2.15 Figure 2.9 Removing  water of crystallisation Heat a few crystals of copper sulphate in a dry boiling tube.   What is t

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Class 10 / Chemistry / Metals and Non-Metals / Introduction to Metals and Non-Metals

Review on What We Have Learnt Earlier

Review on Elements learnt in IX Class In Class IX you have learnt about various elements. You have seen that elements can be classified as metals or non-metals on the basis of their properties

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Class 10 / Chemistry / Metals and Non-Metals / Physical Properties of Metals and Non-Metals

Physical Properties of Metals

METALS The easiest way to start grouping substances is by comparing their physical properties. Let us study this with the help of the following activities. For performing Activities 3.1 to 3.6, col

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Class 10 / Chemistry / Metals and Non-Metals / Physical Properties of Metals and Non-Metals

Physical Properties of Non-Metals

NON-METALS   In the previous Class, you have learnt that there are very few non-metals as compared to metals. Some of the examples of non-metals are carbon, sulphur, iodine, oxygen, hydroge

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Class 10 / History / The Making Of A Global World / History of Making Global World

THE PRE-MODERN WORLD

THE PRE-MODERN WORLD When we talk of ‘globalisation’ we often refer to an economic system that has emerged since the last 50 years or so. But as you will see in this chapter, the making

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Class 10 / History / The Making Of A Global World / History of Making Global World

SILK ROUTES LINK THE WORLD

SILK ROUTES LINK THE WORLD The silk routes are a good example of vibrant pre-modern trade and cultural links between distant parts of the world. The name ‘silk routes’ points to the imp

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Class 10 / History / The Making Of A Global World / History of Making Global World

FOOD TRAVELS: SPAGHETTI AND POTATO

FOOD TRAVELS: SPAGHETTI AND POTATO Food offers many examples of long-distance cultural exchange. Traders and travellers introduced new crops to the lands they travelled. Even ‘ready’ fo

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Class 10 / History / The Making Of A Global World / History of Making Global World

CONQUEST, DISEASE AND TRADE

CONQUEST, DISEASE AND TRADE The pre-modern world shrank greatly in the sixteenth century after European sailors found a sea route to Asia and also successfully crossed the western ocean to America.

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Class 10 / History / The Making Of A Global World / The Nineteenth Century (1815-1914)

CHANGES OF WORLD IN NINETEENTH CENTURY

CHANGES OF WORLD IN NINETEENTH CENTURY The world changed profoundly in the nineteenth century. Economic, political, social, cultural and technological factors interacted in complex ways to transfor

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Class 10 / History / The Making Of A Global World / The Nineteenth Century (1815-1914)

A WORLD ECONOMY TAKES SHAPE

A WORLD ECONOMY TAKES SHAPE A good place to start is the changing pattern of food production and consumption in industrial Europe. Traditionally, countries liked to be self-sufficient in food. But

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Class 10 / History / The Making Of A Global World / The Nineteenth Century (1815-1914)

ROLE OF TECHNOLOGY

ROLE OF TECHNOLOGY What was the role of technology in all this? The railways, steamships, the telegraph, for example, were important inventions without which we cannot imagine the transformed ninet

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Class 10 / History / The Making Of A Global World / The Nineteenth Century (1815-1914)

LATE NINETEENTH-CENTURY COLONIALISM

LATE NINETEENTH-CENTURY COLONIALISM Trade flourished and markets expanded in the late nineteenth century. But this was not only a period of expanding trade and increased prosperity. It is important

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Class 10 / History / The Making Of A Global World / The Nineteenth Century (1815-1914)

RINDERPEST, OR THE CATTLE PLAGUE

RINDERPEST, OR THE CATTLE PLAGUE In Africa, in the 1890s, a fast-spreading disease of cattle plague or rinderpest had a terrifying impact on people’s livelihoods and the local economy. This i

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Class 10 / History / The Making Of A Global World / The Nineteenth Century (1815-1914)

INDENTURED LABOUR MIGRATION FROM INDIA

INDENTURED LABOUR MIGRATION FROM INDIA The example of indentured labour migration from India also illustrates the two-sided nature of the nineteenth-century world. It was a world of faster economic

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Class 10 / History / The Making Of A Global World / The Nineteenth Century (1815-1914)

INDIAN ENTREPRENEURS ABROAD

INDIAN ENTREPRENEURS ABROAD Growing food and other crops for the world market required capital. Large plantations could borrow it from banks and markets. But what about the humble peasant?  

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Class 10 / History / The Making Of A Global World / The Nineteenth Century (1815-1914)

INDIAN TRADE, COLONIALISM AND THE GLOBAL SYSTEM

INDIAN TRADE, COLONIALISM AND THE GLOBAL SYSTEM Historically, fine kinds of cotton produced in India were exported to Europe. With industrialisation, British cotton manufacture began to e

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Class 10 / Chemistry / Metals and Non-Metals / Chemical Properties of Metals

Reaction of Metals with Air

CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF METALS   We will learn about the chemical properties of metals in the following Sections 3.2.1 to 3.2.4. For this, collect the samples of the following metals &n

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Class 10 / Chemistry / Metals and Non-Metals / Chemical Properties of Metals

Reaction of Metals with Water

What happens when Metals react with Water? Activity 3.10 CAUTION: This Activity needs the teacher’s assistance. Collect the samples of the same metals as in Activity 3.9. Put small p

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Class 10 / Chemistry / Metals and Non-Metals / Chemical Properties of Metals

Reaction of Metals with Acids

What happens when Metals react with Acids?   You have already learnt that metals react with acids to give salt and hydrogen gas.   Metal + Dilute acid  \(\to \)  &

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Class 10 / Chemistry / Metals and Non-Metals / Chemical Properties of Metals

Reaction of Metals with Solutions of Other Metal Salts

How do Metals react with Solutions of other Metal Salts? Activity 3.12 Figure 3.4 The reaction of metals with salt solutions Take a clean wire of copper and an iron nail. Put the

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Class 10 / Chemistry / Metals and Non-Metals / Chemical Properties of Metals

The Reactivity Series

The Reactivity Series   The reactivity series is a list of metals arranged in the order of their decreasing activities. After performing displacement experiments (Activities 1.9 and 3.12),

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Class 10 / Chemistry / Metals and Non-Metals / Reaction of Metals with Non-Metals

HOW DO METALS AND NON-METALS REACT?

HOW DO METALS AND NON-METALS REACT? In the above activities, you saw the reactions of metals with a number of reagents. Why do metals react in this manner? Let us recall what we learnt about the el

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Class 10 / Chemistry / Metals and Non-Metals / Reaction of Metals with Non-Metals

Properties of Ionic Compounds

Properties of Ionic Compounds   Activity 3.13   Take samples of sodium chloride, potassium iodide, barium chloride or any other salt from the science laboratory. What is the p

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Class 10 / History / The Making Of A Global World / The Inter-war Economy

WARTIME TRANSFORMATIONS

WARTIME TRANSFORMATIONS The First World War (1914-18) was mainly fought in Europe. But its impact was felt around the world. Notably, for our concerns in this chapter, it plunged the first half of

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Class 10 / History / The Making Of A Global World / The Inter-war Economy

POSTWAR RECOVERY

POSTWAR RECOVERY Post-war economic recovery proved difficult. Britain, which was the world’s leading economy in the pre-war period, in particular faced a prolonged crisis. While Britain was p

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Class 10 / History / The Making Of A Global World / The Inter-war Economy

RISE OF MASS PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION

RISE OF MASS PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION In the US, recovery was quicker. We have already seen how the war helped boost the US economy. After a short period of economic trouble in the years aft

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Class 10 / Chemistry / Metals and Non-Metals / Corrosion

What is Corrosion

CORROSION You have learnt the following about corrosion in Chapter 1 –   Silver articles become black after some time when exposed to air. This is because it reacts with sulphur i

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Class 10 / History / The Making Of A Global World / The Inter-war Economy

THE GREAT DEPRESSION

THE GREAT DEPRESSION The Great Depression began around 1929 and lasted till the mid-1930s. During this period most parts of the world experienced catastrophic declines in production, employment, in

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Class 10 / Chemistry / Metals and Non-Metals / Corrosion

Prevention of Corrosion

PREVENTION OF CORROSION   The rusting of iron can be prevented by painting, oiling, greasing, galvanising, chrome plating, anodising or making alloys.   Galvanisation is a method

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Class 10 / History / The Making Of A Global World / The Inter-war Economy

INDIA AND THE GREAT DEPRESSION

INDIA AND THE GREAT DEPRESSION If we look at the impact of the depression on India we realise how integrated the global economy had become by the early twentieth century. The tremors of a crisis in

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Class 10 / History / The Making Of A Global World / Rebuilding a World Economy: The Post-war Era

POST –WAR RECONSTRUCTION

POST –WAR RECONSTRUCTION The Second World War broke out a mere two decades after the end of the First World War. It was fought between the Axis powers (mainly Nazi Germany, Japan, and Italy)

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Class 10 / Chemistry / Chemistry of Carbon Compounds / Introduction of Carbon Compounds

Importance of Carbon in Daily Life

IMPORTANCE OF CARBON IN DAILY LIFE In the last Chapter, we came to know many compounds of importance to us. In this chapter, we will study some more interesting compounds and their properties. Also

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Class 10 / History / The Making Of A Global World / Rebuilding a World Economy: The Post-war Era

POST- WAR SETTLEMENT AND BRETTON WOODS INSTITUTIONS

POST- WAR SETTLEMENT AND BRETTON WOODS INSTITUTIONS Economists and politicians drew two key lessons from inter-war economic experiences. First, an industrial society based on mass production cannot

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Class 10 / History / The Making Of A Global World / Rebuilding a World Economy: The Post-war Era

THE EARLY POST-WAR YEARS

THE EARLY POST-WAR YEARS The Bretton Woods system inaugurated an era of unprecedented growth of trade and incomes for the Western industrial nations and Japan. World trade grew annually at over 8 p

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Class 10 / History / The Making Of A Global World / Rebuilding a World Economy: The Post-war Era

DECOLONISATION AND INDEPENDENCE

DECOLONISATION AND INDEPENDENCE When the Second World War ended, large parts of the world were still under European colonial rule. Over the next two decades most colonies in Asia and Africa emerged

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Class 10 / History / The Making Of A Global World / Rebuilding a World Economy: The Post-war Era

END OF BRETTON WOODS AND THE BEGINNING OF ‘GLOBALISATION’

END OF BRETTON WOODS AND THE BEGINNING OF ‘GLOBALISATION’ Despite years of stable and rapid growth, not all was well in this post-war world. From the 1960s the rising costs of its overs

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Class 10 / Chemistry / Chemistry of Carbon Compounds / Bonding in Carbon - The Covalent Bond

Bonding in Carbon – The Covalent Bond

BONDING IN CARBON – THE COVALENT BOND In the previous chapter, we have studied the properties of ionic compounds. We saw that ionic compounds have high melting and boiling points an

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Class 10 / History / The Age Of Industrialisation / Introduction to Age of Industrialisation

INNOVATION AND CHANGES

INNOVATION AND CHANGES In 1900, a popular music publisher E.T. Paull produced a music book that had a picture on the cover page announcing the ‘Dawn of the Century’ (Fig. 1). As you can

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Class 10 / History / The Age Of Industrialisation / Before the Industrial Revolution

PROTO- INDUSTRIALISATION

PROTO- INDUSTRIALISATION All too often we associate industrialisation with the growth of the factory industry. When we talk of industrial production we refer to factory production. When we talk of

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Class 10 / History / The Age Of Industrialisation / Before the Industrial Revolution

THE COMING UP OF THE FACTORY

THE COMING UP OF THE FACTORY The earliest factories in England came up by the 1730s. But it was only in the late eighteenth century that the number of factories multiplied. The first symbol of t

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Class 10 / Chemistry / Chemistry of Carbon Compounds / Bonding in Carbon - The Covalent Bond

Molecules Formed by Sharing Valence Electrons

MOLECULES FORMED BY SHARING VALENCE ELECTRONS Before going on to compounds of carbon, let us look at some simple molecules formed by the sharing of valence electrons.   Formation of Hydr

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Class 10 / History / The Age Of Industrialisation / Before the Industrial Revolution

THE PACE OF INDUSTRIAL CHANGE

THE PACE OF INDUSTRIAL CHANGE How rapid was the process of industrialisation? Does industrialisation mean only the growth of factory industries? First: The most dynamic industries in Britain wer

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Class 10 / Chemistry / Chemistry of Carbon Compounds / Versatile Nature of Carbon

Allotropes of Carbon

ALLOTROPY: Allotropes of Carbon The element carbon occurs in different forms in nature with widely varying physical properties. Both diamond and graphite are formed by carbon atoms, the differen

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Class 10 / History / The Age Of Industrialisation / Hand Labour and Steam Power

NEED OF HAND LABOUR

NEED OF HAND LABOUR In Victorian Britain, there was no shortage of human labour. Poor peasants and vagrants moved to the cities in large numbers in search of jobs, waiting for work. As you will kno

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Class 10 / Chemistry / Chemistry of Carbon Compounds / Versatile Nature of Carbon

VERSATILE NATURE OF CARBON

VERSATILE NATURE OF CARBON   We have seen the formation of covalent bonds by the sharing of electrons in various elements and compounds. We have also seen the structure of a simple carbon c

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Class 10 / History / The Age Of Industrialisation / Hand Labour and Steam Power

LIFE OF THE WORKERS

LIFE OF THE WORKERS The abundance of labour in the market affected the lives of workers. As news of possible jobs travelled to the countryside, hundreds tramped to the cities. The actual possibilit

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Class 10 / History / The Age Of Industrialisation / Industrialisation in the Colonies

THE AGE OF INDIAN TEXTILES

THE AGE OF INDIAN TEXTILES Let us now move to India to see how a colony industrialises. Once again we will look not only at factory industries but also at the non-mechanised sector. We will limit o

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Class 10 / Chemistry / Chemistry of Carbon Compounds / Versatile Nature of Carbon

Saturated and Unsaturated Carbon Compounds

Saturated and Unsaturated Carbon Compounds   We have already seen the structure of methane. Another compound formed between carbon and hydrogen is ethane with a formula of C2H6. In order to

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Class 10 / History / The Age Of Industrialisation / Industrialisation in the Colonies

WHAT HAPPENED TO WEAVERS?

WHAT HAPPENED TO WEAVERS? The consolidation of East India Company power after the 1760s did not initially lead to a decline in textile exports from India. British cotton industries had not yet expa

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Class 10 / History / The Age Of Industrialisation / Industrialisation in the Colonies

MANCHESTER COMES TO INDIA

MANCHESTER COMES TO INDIA In 1772, Henry Patullo, a Company official, had ventured to say that the demand for Indian textiles could never reduce since no other nation produced goods of the same qua

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Class 10 / Chemistry / Chemistry of Carbon Compounds / Versatile Nature of Carbon

Chains, Branches and Rings

Chains, Branches and Rings In the earlier section, we mentioned the carbon compounds methane, ethane, and propane, containing respectively 1, 2, and 3 carbon atoms. Such ‘chains’ of car

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Class 10 / History / The Age Of Industrialisation / Factories Come Up

THE EARLY ENTREPRENEURS

THE EARLY ENTREPRENEURS The first cotton mill in Bombay came up in 1854 and it went into production two years later. By 1862 four mills were at work with 94,000 spindles and 2,150 looms. Around th

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Class 10 / Chemistry / Chemistry of Carbon Compounds / Friendly Carbon

Will you be my Friend?

Will you be my Friend? Carbon seems to be a very friendly element. So far we have been looking at compounds containing carbon and hydrogen only. But carbon also forms bonds with other elemen

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Class 10 / History / The Age Of Industrialisation / Factories Come Up

WHERE DID THE WORKERS COME FROM?

WHERE DID THE WORKERS COME FROM? Factories needed workers. With the expansion of factories, this demand increased. In 1901, there were 584,000 workers in Indian factories. By 1946 the number was o

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Class 10 / History / The Age Of Industrialisation / The Peculiarities of Industrial Growth

EXPORTS AND IMPORTS

EXPORTS AND IMPORTS European Managing Agencies, which dominated industrial production in India, were interested in certain kinds of products. They established tea and coffee plantations, acquiring

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Class 10 / Chemistry / Chemistry of Carbon Compounds / Friendly Carbon

Homologous Series

Homologous Series You have seen that carbon atoms can be linked together to form chains of varying lengths. These chains can be branched also. In addition, a hydrogen atom or other atoms on these c

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Class 10 / History / The Age Of Industrialisation / The Peculiarities of Industrial Growth

SMALL SCALE INDUSTRIES PREDOMINATE

SMALL SCALE INDUSTRIES PREDOMINATE While factory industries grew steadily after the war, large industries formed only a small segment of the economy. Most of them – about 67 percent in 1911 &

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Class 10 / History / The Age Of Industrialisation / Market for Goods

ROLE OF ADVERTISEMENTS

ROLE OF ADVERTISEMENTS We have seen how British manufacturers attempted to take over the Indian market, and how Indian weavers and craftsmen, traders and industrialists resisted colonial controls,

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Class 10 / Chemistry / Chemistry of Carbon Compounds / Nomenclature of Carbon Compounds

Nomenclature of Carbon Compounds

Nomenclature of Carbon Compounds   The names of compounds in a Homologous Series are based on the name of the basic carbon chain modified by a “prefix” “phrase before&rdqu

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Class 10 / History / The Age Of Industrialisation / Market for Goods

CONCLUSION

CONCLUSION Clearly, the age of industries has meant major technological changes, growth of factories, and the making of a new industrial labour force. However, as you have seen, hand technology and

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Class 10 / Chemistry / Chemistry of Carbon Compounds / Chemical Properties of Carbon Compounds

Combustion

Combustion   Carbon, in all its allotropic forms, burns in oxygen to give carbon dioxide along with the release of heat and light. Most carbon compounds also release a large amount of heat

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Class 10 / Chemistry / Chemistry of Carbon Compounds / Chemical Properties of Carbon Compounds

Why do substances burn with or without a flame?

Why do substances burn with or without a flame?   Have you ever observed either a coal or a wood fire? If not, the next time you get a chance, take close note of what happens when the wood

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Class 10 / Chemistry / Chemistry of Carbon Compounds / Chemical Properties of Carbon Compounds

Formation of coal and petroleum

Formation of coal and petroleum   Coal and petroleum have been formed from biomass which has been subjected to various biological and geological processes. Coal is the remains of trees, fer

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Class 10 / History / Print Culture And The Modern World / Introduction

HISTORY OF PRINTING

HISTORY OF PRINTING It is difficult for us to imagine a world without printed matter. We find evidence of print everywhere around us – in books, journals, newspapers, prints of famous paintin

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Class 10 / History / Print Culture And The Modern World / The First Printed Books

HAND PRINTING TO MECHANICAL PRINTING

HAND PRINTING TO MECHANICAL PRINTING The earliest kind of print technology was developed in China, Japan and Korea. This was a system of hand printing. From AD 594 onwards, books in China were prin

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Class 10 / Chemistry / Chemistry of Carbon Compounds / Chemical Properties of Carbon Compounds

Oxidation

Oxidation You have learnt about oxidation reactions in the first Chapter. Once we shall recall what we have learnt.   If a substance gains oxygen during a reaction, it i

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Class 10 / Chemistry / Chemistry of Carbon Compounds / Chemical Properties of Carbon Compounds

Addition Reaction

Addition Reaction Unsaturated hydrocarbons add hydrogen in the presence of catalysts such as palladium or nickel to give saturated hydrocarbons. Catalysts are substances that cause a reaction to oc

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Class 10 / Chemistry / Chemistry of Carbon Compounds / Chemical Properties of Carbon Compounds

Substitution Reaction

Substitution Reaction Saturated hydrocarbons are fairly unreactive and are inert in the presence of most reagents. However, in the presence of sunlight, chlorine is added to hydrocarbons in a very

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Class 10 / History / Print Culture And The Modern World / The First Printed Books

PRINT IN JAPAN

PRINT IN JAPAN Buddhist missionaries from China introduced hand-printing technology into Japan around AD 768-770. The oldest Japanese book, printed in AD 868, is the Buddhist Diamond Sutra, contain

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Class 10 / Chemistry / Chemistry of Carbon Compounds / Some Important Carbon Compounds

Ethanol and its Properties

Introduction Many carbon compounds are invaluable to us. But here we shall study the properties of two commercially important compounds – ethanol and ethanoic acid.   Properties

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Class 10 / History / Print Culture And The Modern World / Print Comes to Europe

WOODBLOCK PRINTING

WOODBLOCK PRINTING For centuries, silk and spices from China flowed into Europe through the silk route. In the eleventh century, Chinese paper reached Europe via the same route. Paper made possible

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Class 10 / History / Print Culture And The Modern World / Print Comes to Europe

GUTENBERG AND THE PRINTING PRESS

GUTENBERG AND THE PRINTING PRESS Gutenberg was the son of a merchant and grew up on a large agricultural estate. From his childhood he had seen wine and olive presses. Subsequently, he learnt the a

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Class 10 / History / Print Culture And The Modern World / The Print Revolution and Its Impact

A NEW READING PUBLIC

A NEW READING PUBLIC What was the print revolution? It was not just a development, a new way of producing books; it transformed the lives of people, changing their relationship to information and k

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Class 10 / History / Print Culture And The Modern World / The Print Revolution and Its Impact

RELIGIOUS DEBATES AND THE FEAR OF PRINT

RELIGIOUS DEBATES AND THE FEAR OF PRINT Print created the possibility of wide circulation of ideas, and introduced a new world of debate and discussion. Even those who disagreed with established au

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Class 10 / History / Print Culture And The Modern World / The Print Revolution and Its Impact

PRINT AND DISSENT

PRINT AND DISSENT Print and popular religious literature stimulated many distinctive individual interpretations of faith even among little-educated working people. In the sixteenth century, Menocch

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Class 10 / History / Print Culture And The Modern World / The Reading Mania

LITERACY AND LITERATURE

LITERACY AND LITERATURE Through the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries literacy rates went up in most parts of Europe. Churches of different denominations set up schools in villages, carrying lit

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Class 10 / History / Print Culture And The Modern World / The Reading Mania

‘TREMBLE, THEREFORE, TYRANTS OF THE WORLS!’

‘TREMBLE, THEREFORE, TYRANTS OF THE WORLS!’ By the mid-eighteenth century, there was a common conviction that books were a means of spreading progress and enlightenment. Many believed t

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Class 10 / History / Print Culture And The Modern World / The Reading Mania

PRINT CULTUR AND FRENCH REVOLUTION

PRINT CULTUR AND FRENCH REVOLUTION Many historians have argued that print culture created the conditions within which French Revolution occurred. Can we make such a connection? Three types of ar

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Class 10 / History / Print Culture And The Modern World / The Nineteenth Century

CHILDREN, WOMEN AND WORKERS

CHILDREN, WOMEN AND WORKERS The nineteenth century saw vast leaps in mass literacy in Europe, bringing in large numbers of new readers among children, women and workers. As primary education bec

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Class 10 / History / Print Culture And The Modern World / The Nineteenth Century

FURTHER INNOVATIONS

FURTHER INNOVATIONS By the late eighteenth century, the press came to be made out of metal. Through the nineteenth century, there were a series of further innovations in printing technology. By the

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Class 10 / History / Print Culture And The Modern World / India and the World of Print

MANUSCRIPTS BEFORE THE AGE OF PRINT

MANUSCRIPTS BEFORE THE AGE OF PRINT Let us see when printing began in India and how ideas and information were written before the age of print. India had a very rich and old tradition of handwri

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Class 10 / History / Print Culture And The Modern World / India and the World of Print

PRINT COMES TO INDIA

PRINT COMES TO INDIA The printing press first came to Goa with Portuguese missionaries in the mid-sixteenth century. Jesuit priests learnt Konkani and printed several tracts. By 1674, about 50 book

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Class 10 / Chemistry / Chemistry of Carbon Compounds / Some Important Carbon Compounds

Ethanoic Acid

Ethanoic acid   Ethanoic acid is commonly called acetic acid and belongs to a group of acids called carboxylic acids. 5-8% solution of acetic acid in water is called vinegar and is used wid

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Class 10 / History / Print Culture And The Modern World / Religious Reform and Public Debates

INTENSE DEBATES AROUND RELIGIOUS ISSUES

INTENSE DEBATES AROUND RELIGIOUS ISSUES From the early nineteenth century, as you know, there were intense debates around religious issues. Different groups confronted the changes happening within

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Class 10 / History / Print Culture And The Modern World / New Forms of Publication

WHY NEWSPAPERS?

WHY NEWSPAPERS? Bombay Telegraph and Courier, 6 January 1849 'Krishnaji Trimbuck Ranade inhabitant of Poona intends to publish a Newspaper in the Marathi Language with a view of affording us

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Class 10 / History / Print Culture And The Modern World / New Forms of Publication

PRINT AND VISUAL CULTURE

PRINT AND VISUAL CULTURE Printing created an appetite for new kinds of writing. As more and more people could now read, they wanted to see their own lives, experiences, emotions and relationships r

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Class 10 / Chemistry / Chemistry of Carbon Compounds / Some Important Carbon Compounds

Reactions of Ethanoic Acid

Reactions of ethanoic acid:   Esterification reaction:   Activity 4.8   Take 1 mL ethanol (absolute alcohol) and 1 mL glacial acetic acid along with a few drops of con

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Class 10 / Chemistry / Chemistry of Carbon Compounds / Soaps and Detergents

Soap and its Cleaning Action

Soap and its Cleaning Action   Soap: On treating with sodium hydroxide, which is an alkali, the ester is converted back to alcohol and sodium salt of carboxylic acid. This reaction is kn

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Class 10 / Chemistry / Chemistry of Carbon Compounds / Soaps and Detergents

Role of Soap and Detergent in Hard Water

Role of Soap and Detergent in Hard Water   Activity 4.11   Take about 10 mL of distilled water (or rainwater) and 10 mL of hard water (from a tubewell or hand-pump) in separate t

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Class 10 / History / Print Culture And The Modern World / New Forms of Publication

WOMEN AND PRINT

WOMEN AND PRINT Lives and feelings of women began to be written in particularly vivid and intense ways. Women’s reading, therefore, increased enormously in middle-class homes. Liberal husband

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Class 10 / History / Print Culture And The Modern World / New Forms of Publication

PRINT AND THE POOR PEOPLE

PRINT AND THE POOR PEOPLE Very cheap small books were brought to markets in nineteenth-century Madras towns and sold at crossroads, allowing poor people travelling to markets to buy them. Public li

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Class 10 / History / Print Culture And The Modern World / Print and Censorship

PRINT AND CENSORSHIP

PRINT AND CENSORSHIP Before 1798, the colonial state under the East India Company was not too concerned with censorship. Strangely, its early measures to control printed matter were directed agains

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Class 10 / Biology / Life Processes / Introduction to Life Processes

Alive or Not Alive

Alive or Not Alive   How do we tell the difference between what is alive and what is not  alive? If we see a dog running, or a cow chewing cud, or a man shouting loudly on the street,

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Class 10 / Biology / Life Processes / What are Life Processes?

What are Life Processes

What are Life Processes?   The maintenance functions of living organisms must go on even when they are not doing anything particular. Even when we are just sitting in class, even if we

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Class 10 / Biology / Life Processes / Nutrition

How do Living Things Get Their Food

Introduction   When we walk or ride a bicycle, we are using up energy. Even when we are not doing any apparent activity, energy is needed to maintain a state of order in our body. We also n

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Class 10 / Biology / Life Processes / Nutrition

How do Organisms Obtain Their Food

How do Organisms Obtain Their Food? Since the food and the way it is obtained differ, the digestive system is different in various organisms. In single-celled organisms, the food may be taken in by

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Class 10 / Biology / Life Processes / Autotrophic Nutrition

Introduction of Autotrophic Nutrition

What is Autotrophic Nutrition? The general requirement for energy and materials is common in all organisms, but it is fulfilled in different ways. Some organisms use simple food material obtained f

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Class 10 / Biology / Life Processes / Autotrophic Nutrition

Process of Photosynthesis

What is Photosynthesis?   The carbon and energy requirements of the autotrophic organism are fulfilled by photosynthesis. It is the process by which autotrophs take in substances from the

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Class 10 / Chemistry / Chemical Reactions and Equations / Chemical Equations

INTRODUCTION TO CHEMICAL REACTION AND EQUATION

INTRODUCTION TO CHEMICAL REACTION AND EQUATION Consider the following situations of daily life and think what happens when * milk is left at room temperature during summers. * an i

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Class 10 / Biology / Life Processes / Autotrophic Nutrition

Bell Jar Experiment

Bell Jar Experiment   Activity 6.2   Take two healthy potted plants that are nearly the same size. Keep them in a dark room for three days. Now place each plant on separate

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Class 10 / Biology / Life Processes / Heterotrophic Nutrition

Heterotrophic Nutrition

Heterotrophic Nutrition   Each organism is adapted to its environment. The form of nutrition differs depending on the type and availability of food material as well as how it is obtained by

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Class 10 / Chemistry / Chemical Reactions and Equations / Chemical Equations

WRITING A CHEMICAL EQUATION

WRITING A CHEMICAL EQUATION Is there any other shorter way for representing chemical equations? Chemical equations can be made more concise and useful if we use chemical formulae instead of words.

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Class 10 / Biology / Life Processes / Nutrition in Human Beings

Role of Tongue, Mouth and Oesophagus

Role of Tongue, Mouth, and Oesophagus   The alimentary canal is basically a long tube extending from the mouth to the anus. Figure 6.6 Human alimentary canal   In Fig. 6.

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Class 10 / Biology / Life Processes / Nutrition in Human Beings

Role of Stomach and Intestine in Digestion

Role of Stomach and Intestine in Digestion     The stomach is a large organ that expands when food enters it. The muscular walls of the stomach help in mixing the food

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Class 10 / Chemistry / Chemical Reactions and Equations / Chemical Equations

BALANCING CHEMICAL EQUATIONS

BALANCING CHEMICAL EQUATIONS Recall the law of conservation of mass that you studied in Class IX; mass can neither be created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction. That is, the total mass of the el

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Class 10 / Chemistry / Chemical Reactions and Equations / Types Of Chemical Reactions

INTRODUCTION TO TYPES OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS

INTRODUCTION TO TYPES OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS We have learnt in Class IX that during a chemical reaction atom of one element do not change into those of another element. Nor do atoms disappear from t

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Class 10 / Chemistry / Chemical Reactions and Equations / Types Of Chemical Reactions

COMBINATION REACTION

COMBINATION REACTION   Activity 1.4: Figure 1.3: Formation of slaked lime by the reaction of calcium oxide with water *  Take a small amount of calcium oxide or qui

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Class 10 / Biology / Life Processes / Respiration

Breathing and Respiration

Respiration   Activity 6.4   Take some freshly prepared lime water in a test tube. Blow air through this lime water. Note how long it takes for the lime water to turn milky

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Class 10 / Biology / Life Processes / Respiration

Various Pathways of Respiration

Various Pathways of Respiration   We have discussed nutrition in organisms in the last section. The food material taken in during the process of nutrition is used in cells to provide energy

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Class 10 / Biology / Life Processes / Respiration

ATP - The Energy Currency

Adenosine Tri Phosphate (ATP) The energy released during cellular respiration is immediately used to synthesise a molecule called ATP which is used to fuel all other activities in the cell. In thes

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Class 10 / Chemistry / Chemical Reactions and Equations / Types Of Chemical Reactions

DECOMPOSITION REACTION

DECOMPOSTION REACTION   Activity 1.5:  Figure 1.4: Correct way of heating the boiling tube containing crystals of ferrous sulphate and of smelling the odour.

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Class 10 / Biology / Life Processes / Respiration

Aerobic Respiration

Aerobic Respiration some organisms use oxygen to break-down glucose completely into carbon dioxide and water. The first step is the break-down of glucose, a six-carbon molecule, into a three-carbon

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Class 10 / Biology / Life Processes / Respiration

Respiration in Human Beings

Respiration in Human Beings   In human beings (Fig. 6.9)   The air is taken into the body through the nostrils. The air passing through the nostrils is filtered by fine

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Class 10 / Chemistry / Chemical Reactions and Equations / Types Of Chemical Reactions

DOUBLE DISPLACEMENT REACTION

DOUBLE DISPLACEMENT REACTION Activity 1.10 ( Double Displacement Reaction between Barium Chloride and Sodium Sulphate ): Figure 1.9: Formation of barium sulphate and sodium ch

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Class 10 / Chemistry / Chemical Reactions and Equations / Types Of Chemical Reactions

OXIDATION AND REDUCTION

OXIDATION AND REDUCTION Activity 1.11: Figure 1.10: Oxidation of copper to copper oxide *  Heat a china dish containing about 1 g copper powder (Fig. 1.10). *  

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Class 10 / Chemistry / Chemical Reactions and Equations / Oxidation Reactions in Everyday Life

CORROSION

CORROSION You must have observed that iron articles are shiny when new, but get coated with a reddish-brown powder when left for some time. This process is commonly known as rusting of iron. S

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Class 10 / Chemistry / Chemical Reactions and Equations / Oxidation Reactions in Everyday Life

RANCIDITY

RANCIDITY Have you ever tasted or smelt the fat/oil containing food materials left for a long time?   When fats and oils are oxidised, they become rancid and their smell and taste change

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Class 10 / Biology / Life Processes / Transportation

BLOOD – FLUID CONNECTIVE TISSUE

BLOOD – FLUID CONNECTIVE TISSUE Activity 6.7 *  Visit a health centre in your locality and find out what is the normal range of haemoglobin content in human beings. * &nb

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Class 10 / Biology / Life Processes / Transportation

OUR PUMP – THE HEART

OUR PUMP – THE HEART The heart is a muscular organ which is as big as our fist (Fig. 6.10). Because both oxygen and carbon dioxide have to be transported by the blood, the heart has different

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Class 10 / Biology / Life Processes / Transportation

ENTRY OF OXYGEN TO BLOOD

ENTRY OF OXYGEN TO BLOOD The separation of the right side and the left side of the heart is useful to keep oxygenated and deoxygenated blood from mixing. Such separation allows a highly efficient s

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Class 10 / Biology / Life Processes / Transportation

THE TUBES – BLOOD VESSELS

THE TUBES – BLOOD VESSELS Arteries are the vessels which carry blood away from the heart to various organs of the body. Since the blood emerges from the heart under high pressure, the arterie

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Class 10 / Biology / Life Processes / Transportation

LYMPH

LYMPH There is another type of fluid also involved in transportation. This is called lymph or tissue fluid. Through the pores present in the walls of capillaries some amount of plasma, proteins and

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Class 10 / Biology / Life Processes / Transportation

TRANSPORTATION IN PLANTS

TRANSPORTATION IN PLANTS We have discussed earlier how plants take in simple compounds such as CO2 and photosynthesise energy stored in their chlorophyll -containing organs, namely leaves. The othe

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Class 10 / Biology / Life Processes / Transportation

TRANSPORT OF WATER

TRANSPORT OF WATER In xylem tissue, vessels and tracheids of the roots, stems, and leaves are interconnected to form a continuous system of water-conducting channels reaching all parts of the plant

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Class 10 / Biology / Life Processes / Transportation

TRANSPORT OF FOOD AND OTHER SUBSTANCES

TRANSPORT OF FOOD AND OTHER SUBSTANCES So far we have discussed the transport of water and minerals in plants. Now let us consider how the products of metabolic processes, particularly photosynthes

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Class 10 / Biology / Life Processes / Excretion

WHAT IS EXCRETION?

WHAT IS EXCRETION? We have already discussed how organisms get rid of gaseous wastes generated during photosynthesis or respiration. Other metabolic activities generate nitrogenous materials which

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Class 10 / Biology / Life Processes / Excretion

EXCRETION IN HUMAN BEINGS

EXCRETION IN HUMAN BEINGS The excretory system of human beings (Fig. 6.13) includes a pair of kidneys, a pair of ureters, a urinary bladder and a urethra. Kidneys are located in the abdomen, one on

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Class 10 / Biology / Life Processes / Excretion

MORE TO KNOW – ARTIFICIAL KIDNEY (HEMODIALYSIS)

MORE TO KNOW – ARTIFICIAL KIDNEY (HEMODIALYSIS) Kidneys are vital organs for survival. Several factors like infections, injury, or restricted blood flow to kidneys reduce the activity of kidn

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Class 10 / Biology / Life Processes / Excretion

EXCRETION IN PLANTS

EXCRETION IN PLANTS Plants use completely different strategies for excretion than those of animals. Oxygen itself can be thought of as a waste product generated during photosynthesis! We have discu

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Class 10 / Biology / Control and Coordination / What does Control and Coordination Mean ?

INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION In the previous chapter, we looked at the life processes involved in the maintenance functions in living organisms. There, we had started with a notion we all have, that if we see s

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Class 10 / Biology / Control and Coordination / Nervous System In Animals

WHAT IS NERVOUS TISSUE?

WHAT IS NERVOUS TISSUE? In animals, such control and coordination are provided by nervous and muscular tissues, which we have studied in Class IX. Touching a hot object is an urgent and d

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Class 10 / Biology / Control and Coordination / Nervous System In Animals

HOW NEURONS WORK?

HOW NEURONS WORK? So far, we have been talking about nervous tissue, and how it collects information, sends it around the body, processes information, makes decisions based on information, and con

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Class 10 / Biology / Control and Coordination / Nervous System In Animals

WHAT HAPPENS IN REFLEX ACTIONS?

WHAT HAPPENS IN REFLEX ACTIONS? ‘ Reflex ’ is a word we use very commonly when we talk about some sudden action in response to something in the environment. We say ‘I jumped out

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Class 10 / Biology / Control and Coordination / Nervous System In Animals

HUMAN BRAIN & SPINAL CORD

HUMAN BRAIN & SPINAL CORD Is reflex action the only function of the spinal cord? Obviously not, since we know that we are thinking beings. Spinal cord is made up of nerves which supply informa

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Class 10 / Biology / Control and Coordination / Nervous System In Animals

PROTECTION OF TISSUES

PROTECTION OF TISSUES A delicate organ like the brain, which is so important for a variety of activities, needs to be carefully protected. For this, the body is designed so that the brain sits insi

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Class 10 / Biology / Control and Coordination / Coordination In Plants

PLANTS RESPONSE TO STIMULUS

PLANTS RESPONSE TO STIMULUS Coordination in Plants Animals have a nervous system for controlling and coordinating the activities of the body. But plants have neither a nervous system nor muscles

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Class 10 / Biology / Control and Coordination / Coordination In Plants

MOVEMENT DUE TO GROWTH

MOVEMENT DUE TO GROWTH Some plants like the pea plant climb up other plants or fences by means of tendrils. These tendrils are sensitive to touch. When they come in contact with any support, the pa

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Class 10 / Biology / Control and Coordination / Animal Hormones

WHAT ARE HORMONES?

WHAT ARE HORMONES? How are such chemical, or hormonal, means of information transmission used in animals? What do some animals, for instance, squirrels, experience when they are in a scary sit

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Class 10 / Biology / Control and Coordination / Animal Hormones

ADRENALINE

ADRENALINE Adrenaline is secreted directly into the blood and carried to different parts of the body. The target organs or the specific tissues on which it acts include the heart. As a result, the

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Class 10 / Biology / Control and Coordination / Animal Hormones

THYROXIN

THYROXIN Let us examine some examples to understand how hormones help in coordinated growth. We have all seen salt packets which say ‘iodised salt’ or ‘enriched with iodine’

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Class 10 / Biology / Control and Coordination / Animal Hormones

GROWTH HORMONE

GROWTH HORMONE Sometimes we come across people who are either very short (dwarfs) or extremely tall (giants). Have you ever wondered how this happens? Growth hormone is one of the hormones secreted

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Class 10 / Biology / Control and Coordination / Animal Hormones

TESTOSTERONE AND OESTROGEN

TESTOSTERONE AND OESTROGEN You must have noticed many dramatic changes in your appearance as well as that of your friends as you approached 10–12 years of age. These changes associated with p

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Class 10 / Biology / Control and Coordination / Animal Hormones

INSULIN

INSULIN Do you know anyone in your family or friends who has been advised by the doctor to take less sugar in their diet because they are suffering from diabetes? As a treatment, they might be taki

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Class 10 / Biology / How do Organisms Reproduce ? / Modes of Reproduction

FISSION

FISSION Activity 8.1: *  Dissolve about 10 gm of sugar in 100 mL of water. *  Take 20 mL of this solution in a test tube and add a pinch of yeast granules to it. * 

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Class 10 / Biology / How do Organisms Reproduce ? / Modes of Reproduction

FRAGMENTATION

FRAGMENTATION Activity 8.4: *  Collect water from a lake or pond that appears dark green and contains filamentous structures. *  Put one or two filaments on a slide. *&

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Class 10 / Biology / How do Organisms Reproduce ? / Modes of Reproduction

REGENERATION

REGENERATION Many fully differentiated organisms have the ability to give rise to new individual organisms from their body parts. That is, if the individual is somehow cut or broken up into many pi

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Class 10 / Biology / How do Organisms Reproduce ? / Modes of Reproduction

BUDDING

BUDDING Organisms such as Hydra use regenerative cells for reproduction in the process of budding. In Hydra, a bud develops as an outgrowth due to repeated cell division at one specific site (

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Class 10 / Biology / How do Organisms Reproduce ? / Modes of Reproduction

VEGETATIVE PROPAGATION

VEGETATIVE PROPAGATION There are many plants in which parts like the root, stem and leaves develop into new plants under appropriate conditions. Unlike in most animals, plants can indeed use such a

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Class 10 / Biology / How do Organisms Reproduce ? / Modes of Reproduction

SPORE FORMATION

SPORE FORMATION Even in many simple multi-cellular organisms, specific reproductive parts can be identified. The thread-like structures that developed on the bread in Activity 8.2 above are the hyp

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Class 10 / Biology / How do Organisms Reproduce ? / Sexual Reproduction

WHY THE SEXUAL MODE OF REPRODUCTION?

WHY THE SEXUAL MODE OF REPRODUCTION? We are also familiar with modes of reproduction that depend on the involvement of two individuals before a new generation can be created. Bulls alone cannot pro

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Class 10 / Biology / How do Organisms Reproduce ? / Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

REPRODUCTIVE PARTS OF A FLOWER

REPRODUCTIVE PARTS OF A FLOWER The reproductive parts of angiosperms are located in the flower. You have already studied the different parts of a flower – sepals, petals stamens and pist

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Class 10 / Biology / How do Organisms Reproduce ? / Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

PROCESS OF FERTILIZATION

PROCESS OF FERTILIZATION The ovary contains ovules and each ovule has an egg cell. The male germ-cell produced by pollen grain fuses with the female gamete present in the ovule. This fusion of

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Class 10 / Biology / How do Organisms Reproduce ? / Reproduction in Human Beings

INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION So far, we have been discussing the variety of modes that different species use for reproduction. Let us now look at the species that we are most interested in, namely, humans. Humans

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Class 10 / Biology / How do Organisms Reproduce ? / Reproduction in Human Beings

MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM The male reproductive system (Fig. 8.10) consists of portions which produce the germ-cells and other portions that deliver the germ-cells to the site of fertilisation. &

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Class 10 / Biology / How do Organisms Reproduce ? / Reproduction in Human Beings

FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM The female germ-cells or eggs are made in the ovaries. They are also responsible for the production of some hormones. Look at Fig. 8.11 and identify the various organs in

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Class 10 / Biology / How do Organisms Reproduce ? / Reproduction in Human Beings

WHAT HAPPENS WHEN THE EGG IS NOT FERTILIZED?

WHAT HAPPENS WHEN THE EGG IS NOT FERTILIZED? If the egg is not fertilised, it lives for about one day. Since the ovary releases one egg every month, the uterus also prepares itself every month to r

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Class 10 / Biology / How do Organisms Reproduce ? / Reproduction in Human Beings

REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH

REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH As we have seen, the process of sexual maturation is gradual and takes place while general body growth is still going on. Therefore, some degree of sexual maturation does n

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Class 10 / Biology / How do Organisms Reproduce ? / Why Do Organisms Reproduce?

INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION Before we discuss the mechanisms by which organisms reproduce, let us ask a more basic question – why do organisms reproduce? After all, reproduction is not necessary to maintain

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Class 10 / Biology / How do Organisms Reproduce ? / Do Organisms Create Exact Copy Of Themselves?

ORGANISMS LOOK SIMILAR?

ORGANISMS LOOK SIMILAR? Organisms look similar because their body designs are similar. If body designs are to be similar, the blueprints for these designs should be similar. Thus, reproduction at i

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Class 10 / Biology / How do Organisms Reproduce ? / The Importance Of Variation

THE STABILITY OF POPULATIONS OF SPECIES

THE STABILITY OF POPULATIONS OF SPECIES Populations of organisms fill well-defined places, or niches, in the ecosystem, using their ability to reproduce. The consistency of DNA copying during repro

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Class 10 / Biology / Heredity and Evolution / Variation During Reproduction

INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION We have seen that reproductive processes give rise to new individuals that are similar, but subtly different. We have discussed how some amount of variation is produced even durin

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Class 10 / Biology / Heredity and Evolution / Heredity

INHERITED TRAITS

INHERITED TRAITS What exactly do we mean by similarities and differences? We know that a child bears all the basic features of a human being. However, it does not look exactly like its parents, and

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Class 10 / Biology / Heredity and Evolution / Heredity

MENDEL’S CONTRIBUTIONS

MENDEL’S CONTRIBUTIONS The rules for inheritance of such traits in human beings are related to the fact that both the father and the mother contribute practically equal amounts of genetic mat

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Class 10 / Biology / Heredity and Evolution / Heredity

EXPRESSION OF TRAITS

EXPRESSION OF TRAITS How does the mechanism of heredity work? Cellular DNA is the information source for making proteins in the cell. A section of DNA that provides information for one protein is c

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Class 10 / Biology / Heredity and Evolution / Heredity

SEX DETERMINATION

SEX DETERMINATION We have discussed the idea that the two sexes participating in sexual reproduction must be somewhat different from each other for a number of reasons. How is the sex of a newborn

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Class 10 / Biology / Heredity and Evolution / Evolution

AN ILLUSTRATION

AN ILLUSTRATION We have noted that there is an inbuilt tendency to variation during reproduction, both because of errors in DNA copying, and as a result of sexual reproduction. Let us now look at s

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Class 10 / Biology / Heredity and Evolution / Evolution

ACQUIRED AND INHERITED TRAITS

ACQUIRED AND INHERITED TRAITS We discussed the idea that the germ cells of sexually reproducing populations are made in specialised reproductive tissue. If the weight of the beetle is reduced becau

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Class 10 / Biology / Heredity and Evolution / Speciation

SPECIATION

SPECIATION What we have seen so far is micro-evolution. That means that the changes are small, even though they are significant. Also, they simply change the common characteristics of a particular

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Class 10 / Biology / Heredity and Evolution / Evolution and Classification

IDENTIFYING HIERARCHIES

IDENTIFYING HIERARCHIES Based on these principles, we can work out the evolutionary relationships of the species we see around us. It is a sort of going backwards in time. We can do this by identif

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Class 10 / Biology / Heredity and Evolution / Evolution and Classification

TRACING EVOLUTIONARY RELATIONSHIPS

TRACING EVOLUTIONARY RELATIONSHIPS When we try to follow evolutionary relationships, how do we identify characteristics as common? These characteristics in different organisms would be similar beca

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Class 10 / Biology / Heredity and Evolution / Evolution and Classification

FOSSILS

FOSSILS Such studies of organ structure can be done not only on current species, but also on species that are no longer alive. How do we know that these extinct species ever existed? We know this f

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Class 10 / Biology / Heredity and Evolution / Evolution and Classification

EVOLUTION BY STAGES

EVOLUTION BY STAGES A question that arises here is – if complicated organs, such as the eye, are selected for the advantage they provide, how can they be generated by a single DNA change? Sur

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Class 10 / Biology / Heredity and Evolution / Evolution Vs Progress

EVOLUTION NOT EQUATED WITH PROGRESS

EVOLUTION NOT EQUATED WITH PROGRESS In an exercise of tracing the family trees of species, we need to remember certain things. Firstly, there are multiple branches possible at each and every

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Class 10 / Biology / Heredity and Evolution / Evolution Vs Progress

THE HUMAN EVOLUTION

THE HUMAN EVOLUTION   The same tools for tracing evolutionary relationships – excavating, time-dating, and studying fossils, as well as determining DNA sequences – have bee

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Class 10 / Biology / Our Environment / Ecosystem

ECOSYSTEM AND ITS COMPONENTS

ECOSYSTEM AND ITS COMPONENTS We have heard the word ‘environment’ often being used on the television, in newspapers and by people around us. Our elders tell us that the &lsquo

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Class 10 / Biology / Our Environment / Ecosystem

FOOD CHAINS AND WEBS

FOOD CHAINS AND WEBS In Figure 15.4 we have formed a series of organisms feeding on one another. This series or organisms taking part at various biotic levels form a food chain (Fig. 15.1).

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Class 10 / Biology / Our Environment / Our Activities Vs Environment

OZONE LAYER AND HOW IT IS GETTING DEPLETED?

FOOD CHAINS AND WEBS We are an integral part of the environment. Changes in the environment affect us and our activities change the environment around us. We have already seen in Class IX how

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Class 10 / Biology / Our Environment / Our Activities Vs Environment

MANAGING THE GARBAGE WE PRODUCE

MANAGING THE GARBAGE WE PRODUCE In our daily activities, we generate a lot of material that are thrown away. What are some of these waste materials? What happens after we throw them away? Let

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Class 10 / Biology / Sustainable Management of Natural Resources / Living in Harmony with Nature

INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION ‘Living in harmony with nature’ is not new to us. Sustainable living has always been an integral part of India’s tradition and culture. It has been integrated with ou

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Class 10 / Biology / Sustainable Management of Natural Resources / Living in Harmony with Nature

R 5 PRINCIPLE

R 5 PRINCIPLE We need not feel powerless or overwhelmed by the scale of the problems because there are many things we can do to make a difference. You must have come across the five R’s to sa

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Class 10 / Biology / Sustainable Management of Natural Resources / Need For Managing Resources

WHY TO MANAGE RESOURCES?

WHY TO MANAGE RESOURCES? Not just roads and buildings, but all the things we use or consume – food, clothes, books, toys, furniture, tools and vehicles – are obtained from resources on

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Class 10 / Biology / Sustainable Management of Natural Resources / Forests and Wild Life

STAKEHOLDERS

STAKEHOLDERS Activity 16.6: *  Make a list of forest produce that you use. *  What do you think a person living near a forest would use? *  What do you think

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Class 10 / Biology / Sustainable Management of Natural Resources / Forests and Wild Life

MANAGEMENT OF FOREST

MANAGEMENT OF FOREST We need to consider if the goals of all the above stakeholders with regard to the management of the forests are the same. Forest resources are often made available for industri

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Class 10 / Biology / Sustainable Management of Natural Resources / Water for All

WATER – A BASIC NECESSITY

WATER – A BASIC NECESSITY Activity 16.9: *  Villages suffering from chronic water shortage surround a water theme park in Maharashtra. Debate whether this is the optimum use of

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Class 10 / Biology / Sustainable Management of Natural Resources / Water for All

DAMS

DAMS Why do we seek to build dams? Large dams can ensure the storage of adequate water not just for irrigation, but also for generating electricity, as discussed in the previous chapter. Canal system

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Class 10 / Biology / Sustainable Management of Natural Resources / Water for All

WATER HARVESTING

WATER HARVESTING Watershed management emphasises scientific soil and water conservation in order to increase the biomass production. The aim is to develop primary resources of land and water, to prod

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Class 10 / Biology / Sustainable Management of Natural Resources / Coal and Petroleum

COAL AND PETROLEUM

COAL AND PETROLEUM We have seen some of the issues involved in the conservation and sustainable use of resources like forests, wildlife and water. These can meet our needs perpetually if we were to u

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Class 10 / Biology / Sustainable Management of Natural Resources / Overview of Natural Resource Management

OUR RESPONSIBILITY

OUR RESPONSIBILITY Sustainable management of natural resources is a difficult task. In addressing this issue, we need to keep an open mind with regard to the interests of various stakeholders. We n

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Class 10 / Geography / Resources and Development / Introduction

INTRODUCTION AND CLASSIFICATION OF RESOURCES

INTRODUCTION AND CLASSIFICATION OF RESOURCES Everything available in our environment which can be used to satisfy our needs, provided, it is technologically accessible, economically feasible and cu

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Class 10 / Geography / Resources and Development / Types of Resources

ON BASIS OF ORIGIN AND EXHAUSTIBILITY

ON BASIS OF ORIGIN AND EXHAUSTIBILITY Renewable Resources: The resources which can be renewed or reproduced by physical, chemical or mechanical processes are known as renewable or replenishable

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Class 10 / Geography / Resources and Development / Types of Resources

ON BASIS OF OWNERSHIP

ON BASIS OF OWNERSHIP Individual Resources: These are also owned privately by individuals. Many farmers own land which is allotted to them by the government against the payment of revenue. In v

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Class 10 / Geography / Resources and Development / Types of Resources

ON THE BASIS OF THE STATUS OF DEVELOPMENT

ON THE BASIS OF THE STATUS OF DEVELOPMENT Potential Resources: Resources which are found in a region, but have not been utilised. For example, the western parts of India particularly Rajasthan

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Class 10 / Geography / Resources and Development / Development of Resources

SUSTAINABLE RESOURCES

SUSTAINABLE RESOURCES Sustainable development: Sustainable economic development means ‘development should take place without damaging the environment, and development in the present shoul

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Class 10 / Geography / Resources and Development / Development of Resources

RESOURCES PLANNING

RESOURCES PLANNING Planning is the widely accepted strategy for judicious use of resources. It has importance in a country like India, which has enormous diversity in the availability of resources.

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Class 10 / Geography / Resources and Development / Development of Resources

RESOURCES PLANNING IN INDIA

RESOURCES PLANNING IN INDIA Resource planning is a complex process which involves : (i) identification and inventory of resources across the regions of the country. This involves surveying, mapp

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Class 10 / Geography / Resources and Development / Land Resources and Utilization

LAND RESOURCES

LAND RESOURCES We live on land, we perform our economic activities on land and we use it in different ways. Thus, land is a natural resource of the utmost importance. It supports natural veget

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Class 10 / Geography / Resources and Development / Land Resources and Utilization

LAND UTILIZATION

LAND UTILIZATION Land resources are used for the following purposes: 1. Forests 2. Land not available for cultivation       (a) Barren and wasteland      

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Class 10 / Geography / Resources and Development / Land Resources and Utilization

LAND USE PATTERN IN INDIA

LAND USE PATTERN IN INDIA The use of land is determined both by physical factors such as topography, climate, soil types as well as human factors such as population density, technological capabilit

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Class 10 / Geography / Resources and Development / Land Resources and Utilization

LAND DEGRADATION AND CONSERVATION MEASURES

LAND DEGRADATION AND CONSERVATION MEASURES We have shared our land with the past generations and will have to do so with the future generations too. Ninety-five percent of our basic needs for

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Class 10 / Physics / Light - Reflection and Refraction / Introduction

What makes things visible?

We see a variety of objects in the world around us. However, we are unable to see anything in a dark room. On lighting up the room, things become visible. What makes things visible? During the day, su

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Class 10 / Physics / Light - Reflection and Refraction / Reflection of Light

Laws of Reflection

Reflection of Light A highly polished surface, such as a mirror, reflects most of the light falling on it. You are already familiar with the laws of reflection of light Let us recall these laws

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Class 10 / Physics / Light - Reflection and Refraction / Spherical Mirrors

Concave and Convex Mirror

Concave and Convex Mirror Concave and Convex Mirror The reflecting surface of a spherical mirror may be curved inwards or outwards. A spherical mirror, whose reflecting surface is curved inwards, t

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Class 10 / Physics / Light - Reflection and Refraction / Spherical Mirrors

Image Formation by Spherical Mirrors

Image Formation by Spherical Mirrors You have studied the image formation by plane mirrors. You also know the nature, position, and relative size of the images formed by them. How about the images

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Class 10 / Physics / Light - Reflection and Refraction / Representation of Images by Ray Diagrams

Drawing Ray Diagrams

Representation of Images Formed by Spherical  Mirrors Using Ray Diagrams   We can also study the formation of images by spherical mirrors by drawing ray diagrams. Consider an extended

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Class 10 / Physics / Light - Reflection and Refraction / Representation of Images by Ray Diagrams

Image formation by Concave Mirror

Image formation by Concave Mirror Figure 10.7 illustrates the ray diagrams for the formation of the image by a concave mirror for various positions of the object. Figure 10.7 Ray diagrams fo

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Class 10 / Physics / Light - Reflection and Refraction / Representation of Images by Ray Diagrams

Image formation by Convex Mirror

Image formation by Convex Mirror We studied the image formation by a concave mirror. Now we shall study the formation of image by a convex mirror. Activity 10.5 Take a convex mirror. Hold it

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Class 10 / Geography / Resources and Development / Soil and its Classification

SOIL AS A RESOURCES

SOIL AS A RESOURCES Soil is the most important renewable natural resource. It is the medium of plant growth and supports different types of living organisms on the earth. The soil is a living syste

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Class 10 / Geography / Resources and Development / Soil and its Classification

ALLUVIAL, BLACK, RED AND YELLOW SOILS

ALLUVIAL, BLACK, RED AND YELLOW SOILS Alluvial Soils This is the most widely spread and important soil. In fact, the entire northern plains are made of alluvial soil. These have been deposited b

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Class 10 / Geography / Resources and Development / Soil and its Classification

LATERITE, ARID AND FOREST SOILS

LATERITE, ARID AND FOREST SOILS Laterite Soils Laterite has been derived from the Latin word ‘later’ which means brick. The laterite soil develops under tropical and subtropical

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Class 10 / Geography / Resources and Development / Soil Erosion and Conservation

SOIL EROSION AND CONSERVATION

SOIL EROSION AND CONSERVATION The denudation of the soil cover and subsequent washing down is described as soil erosion. The processes of soil formation and erosion, go on simultaneously and genera

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Class 10 / Geography / Forest and Wildlife Resources / Biodiversity

INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION * Lepcha folk song from the northern part of West Bengal Narak! My Lord, you are the creator of music in the world of Lepchas. Oh Narak! My Lord, let me dedicate myself to y

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Class 10 / Geography / Forest and Wildlife Resources / Flora and Fauna

FLORA AND FAUNA IN INDIA

FLORA AND FAUNA IN INDIA If you look around, you will be able to find that there are some animals and plants which are unique in your area. In fact, India is one of the world’s richest countr

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Class 10 / Geography / Forest and Wildlife Resources / Flora and Fauna

SPECIES CLASSIFICATION ON LEVEL OF SURVIVAL

SPECIES CLASSIFICATION ON LEVEL OF SURVIVAL Let us now understand the different categories of existing plants and animal species. Based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Nat

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Class 10 / Geography / Forest and Wildlife Resources / Depletion of the Flora and Fauna

DEFORESTATION AND MINING

DEFORESTATION AND MINING Vanishing Forest The dimensions of deforestation in India are staggering. The forest and tree cover in the country is estimated at 79.42 million hectare, which is 24.16

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Class 10 / Geography / Forest and Wildlife Resources / Depletion of the Flora and Fauna

OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL DESTRUCTION

OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL DESTRUCTION Other important causes of environmental destruction are unequal access, inequitable consumption of resources and differential sharing of responsibility for environme

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Class 10 / Physics / Light - Reflection and Refraction / Sign Convention, Lens Formula, Magnification of Spherical Lens

Sign Convention, Lens Formula and Magnification

Sign Convention for Spherical Lenses   For lenses, we follow sign convention, similar to the one used for spherical mirrors. We apply the rules for signs of distances, except that all measu

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Class 10 / Geography / Forest and Wildlife Resources / Depletion of the Flora and Fauna

LOSS OF CULTURAL DIVERSITY

LOSS OF CULTURAL DIVERSITY The destruction of forests and wildlife is not just a biological issue. The biological loss is strongly correlated with the loss of cultural diversity. Such losses have i

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Class 10 / Physics / Light - Reflection and Refraction / Power of a Lens

Power of Lens

Power of a Lens You have already learnt that the ability of a lens to converge or diverge light rays depends on its focal length. For example, a convex lens of short focal length bends the light ra

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Class 10 / Geography / Forest and Wildlife Resources / Conservation of Forest and Wildlife in India

TYPES AND DISTRIBUTION OF FOREST AND WILDLIFE RESOURCES

TYPES AND DISTRIBUTION OF FOREST AND WILDLIFE RESOURCES Even if we want to conserve our vast forest and wildlife resources, it is rather difficult to manage, control and regulate them. In India, mu

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Class 10 / Geography / Forest and Wildlife Resources / Conservation of Forest and Wildlife in India

CONSERVE OUR FOREST AND WILDLIFE

CONSERVE OUR FOREST AND WILDLIFE Conservation in the background of the rapid decline in wildlife population and forestry has become essential. But why do we need to conserve our forests and wi

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Class 10 / Geography / Forest and Wildlife Resources / Conservation of Forest and Wildlife in India

COMMUNITY AND CONSERVATION

COMMUNITY AND CONSERVATION Conservation in the background of the rapid decline in wildlife population and forestry has become essential. But why do we need to conserve our forests and wildlife

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Class 10 / Physics / Human Eye and Colourful World / Human Eye

Human Eye

Introduction You have studied in the previous chapter about refraction of light by lenses. You also studied the nature, position and relative size of images formed by lenses. How can these ideas he

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Class 10 / Physics / Human Eye and Colourful World / Human Eye

Power of Accommodation

Power of Accommodation The eye lens is composed of fibrous, jelly-like material. Its curvature can be modified to some extent by the ciliary muscles. The change in the curvature of the eye lens can

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Class 10 / Geography / Water Resources / Water Conservation - An Important Need

WATER SCARCITY

WATER SCARCITY Introduction You already know that three-fourths of the earth’s surface is covered with water, but only a small proportion of it accounts for freshwater that can be put

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Class 10 / Physics / Human Eye and Colourful World / Defects Of Vision And Their Correction

Defects Of Vision And Their Correction

Common refractive defects of vision Sometimes, the eye may gradually lose its power of accommodation. In such conditions, the person cannot see the objects distinctly and comfortably. The vision be

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Class 10 / Geography / Water Resources / Multi-purpose River Projects

HOW DO WE CONSERVE AND MANAGE WATER?

HOW DO WE CONSERVE AND MANAGE WATER? But, how do we conserve and manage water? Archaeological and historical records show that from ancient times we have been constructing sophisticated hydraulic s

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Class 10 / Physics / Human Eye and Colourful World / Refraction Of Light Through A Prism

Refraction Of Light Through A Prism

Refraction Of Light Through A Prism You have learnt how the light gets refracted through a rectangular glass slab. For parallel refracting surfaces, as in a glass slab, the emergent ray is parallel

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Class 10 / Geography / Water Resources / Multi-purpose River Projects

DAMS - TEMPLES OF MODERN INDIA

DAMS - TEMPLES OF MODERN INDIA What are dams and how do they help us in conserving and managing water?   A dam is a barrier across flowing water that obstructs, directs, or retards the

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Class 10 / Geography / Water Resources / Multi-purpose River Projects

SCRUTINY AND OPPOSITION

SCRUTINY AND OPPOSITION In recent years, multi-purpose projects and large dams have come under great scrutiny and opposition for a variety of reasons. Regulating and damming of rivers affect their

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Class 10 / Geography / Water Resources / Multi-purpose River Projects

ROLE OF IRRIGATION

ROLE OF IRRIGATION Irrigation has also changed the cropping pattern of many regions with farmers shifting to water-intensive and commercial crops. This has great ecological consequences like salini

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Class 10 / Physics / Human Eye and Colourful World / Dispersion Of White Light By A Glass Prism

Dispersion Of White Light By A Glass Prism

Dispersion of White Light By A Glass Prism You must have seen and appreciated the spectacular colours in a rainbow. How could the white light of the Sun give us various colours of the rainbow? Befo

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Class 10 / Geography / Water Resources / Rain Water Harvesting

WATER HARVESTING SYSTEM - AVAILABLE ALTERNATIVE

WATER HARVESTING SYSTEM -  AVAILABLE ALTERNATIVE Many thought that given the disadvantages and rising resistance against the multi-purpose projects, a water harvesting system w

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Class 10 / Geography / Water Resources / Rain Water Harvesting

TANKAS

TANKAS In the semi-arid and arid regions of Rajasthan, particularly in Bikaner, Phalodi and Barmer, almost all the houses traditionally had underground tanks or tankas for storing drinking water.

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Class 10 / Physics / Human Eye and Colourful World / Atmospheric Refraction

Stars, Sunrise and Sunset

Atmospheric Refraction You might have observed the apparent random wavering or flickering of objects seen through a turbulent stream of hot air rising above a fire or a radiator. The air

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Class 10 / Physics / Human Eye and Colourful World / Scattering Of Light

Scattering Of Light - Tyndall Effect

Scattering Of Light The interplay of light with objects around us gives rise to several spectacular phenomena in nature. The blue colour of the sky, colour of water in the deep sea, the reddening o

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Class 10 / Physics / Human Eye and Colourful World / Scattering Of Light

Why is the colour of the clear Sky Blue?

Why is the colour of the clear Sky Blue? The molecules of air and other fine particles in the atmosphere have a size smaller than the wavelength of visible light. These are more effective

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Class 10 / Geography / Water Resources / Rain Water Harvesting

BAMBOO DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM

BAMBOO DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM In Meghalaya, a 200-year-old system of tapping stream and spring water by using bamboo pipes, is prevalent. About 18-20 litres of water enters the bamboo pipe system,

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Class 10 / Physics / Human Eye and Colourful World / Scattering Of Light

Colour of the Sun at Sunrise and Sunset

Colour of the Sun at Sunrise and Sunset   Have you seen the sky and the Sun at sunset or sunrise? Have you wondered as to why the Sun and the surrounding sky appear red? Let us do an activi

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Class 10 / Geography / Agriculture / Farming and its types

PRIMITIVE SUBSISTENCE FARMING

PRIMITIVE SUBSISTENCE FARMING Introduction India is an agriculturally important country. Two-thirds of its population is engaged in agricultural activities. Agriculture is a primary activity, wh

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Class 10 / Geography / Agriculture / Farming and its types

INTENSIVE SUBSISTENCE FARMING

INTENSIVE SUBSISTENCE FARMING This type of farming is practised in areas of high population pressure on land. It is labour- intensive farming, where high doses of biochemical inputs and irrigation

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Class 10 / Geography / Agriculture / Farming and its types

COMMERCIAL FARMING

COMMERCIAL FARMING The main characteristic of this type of farming is the use of higher doses of modern inputs, e.g. high yielding variety (HYV) seeds, chemical fertilisers, insecticides and p

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Class 10 / Geography / Agriculture / Cropping Pattern

RABI, KHARIF AND ZAID

RABI, KHARIF AND ZAID You have studied the physical diversities and plurality of cultures in India. These are also reflected in agricultural practices and cropping patterns in the country. Various

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Class 10 / Geography / Agriculture / Major Crops

RICE, WHEAT AND PULSES

RICE, WHEAT AND PULSES A variety of food and non-food crops are grown in different parts of the country depending upon the variations in soil, climate and cultivation practices. Major crops grown i

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Class 10 / Geography / Agriculture / Major Crops

MILLETS AND MAIZE

MILLETS AND MAIZE Millets Jowar, bajra and ragi are the important millets grown in India. Though these are known as coarse grains, they have very high nutritional value. For example, ragi is ver

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Class 10 / Geography / Agriculture / Food Crops other than Grains

SUGARCANE

SUGARCANE It is a tropical as well as a subtropical crop. It grows well in a hot and humid climate with a temperature of 21°C to 27°C and annual rainfall between 75cm. and 100cm. Irrigation

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Class 10 / Geography / Agriculture / Food Crops other than Grains

OIL SEEDS

OILSEEDS In 2016 India was the second-largest producer of groundnut in the world after China. In rapeseed production, India was the third-largest producer in the world after Canada and China in 201

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Class 10 / Geography / Agriculture / Food Crops other than Grains

TEA AND COFFEE

TEA AND COFFEE Tea Tea cultivation is an example of plantation agriculture. It is also an important beverage crop introduced in India initially by the British. Today, most of the tea plantations

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Class 10 / Geography / Agriculture / Food Crops other than Grains

HORTICULTURE CROPS

HORTICULTURE CROPS In 2016, India was the second largest producer of fruits and vegetables in the world after China. India is a producer of tropical as well as temperate fruits. Mangoes of Maharash

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Class 10 / Geography / Agriculture / Non-Food Crops

RUBBER

RUBBER It is an equatorial crop, but under special conditions, it is also grown in tropical and sub-tropical areas. It requires moist and humid climate with rainfall of more than 200 cm. and temper

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Class 10 / Geography / Agriculture / Non-Food Crops

FIBRE CROPS - COTTON AND JUTE

FIBRE CROPS - COTTON AND JUTE   Fibre crops Cotton, jute, hemp and natural silk are the four major fibre crops grown in India. The first three are derived from the crops grown in the so

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Class 10 / Geography / Agriculture / Technological and Institutional Reforms

TECHNO – INSTITUTIONAL CHANGES

TECHNO – INSTITUTIONAL CHANGES   It was mentioned in the previous pages that agriculture has been practised in India for thousands of years. Sustained uses of land without compatible

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Class 10 / Geography / Agriculture / Technological and Institutional Reforms

BHOODAN-GRAMDAN

BHOODAN-GRAMDAN   Mahatma Gandhi declared Vinoba Bhave as his spiritual heir. He also participated in Satyagraha as one of the foremost satyagrahis. He was one of the votaries of Gandh

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Class 10 / Geography / Agriculture / Agriculture - The Backbone of Indian Economy

AGRICULTURAL SHARE IN THE GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT(GDP)

AGRICULTURAL SHARE IN THE GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT(GDP) Agriculture has been the backbone of the Indian economy through its share in the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has registered a declin

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Class 10 / Geography / Agriculture / Impact of Globalisation on Agriculture

EFFECT OF GLOBALISATION OF FARMERS

EFFECT OF GLOBALISATION OF FARMERS Globalisation is not a new phenomenon. It was there at the time of colonisation. In the nineteenth century when European traders came to India, at that time too,

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Class 10 / Geography / Agriculture / Impact of Globalisation on Agriculture

ORGANIC FARMING

ORGANIC FARMING In fact, organic farming is much in vogue today because it is practised without factory-made chemicals such as fertilizers and pesticides. Hence, it does not affect the environment

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Class 10 / Geography / Minerals and Energy Resources / Minerals

WHERE DO THESE METALS COME FROM?

WHERE DO THESE METALS COME FROM? Introduction Haban comes to Guwahati with his father from a remote village. He sees people getting into a strange house like objects which move along t

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Class 10 / Geography / Minerals and Energy Resources / Minerals

WHAT IS A MINERAL?

WHAT IS A MINERAL? Geologists define a mineral as a “homogenous, naturally occurring substance with a definable internal structure.” Minerals are found in varied forms in nature, rangin

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Class 10 / Geography / Minerals and Energy Resources / Occurrence of Minerals

WHERE ARE THESE MINERALS FOUND?

WHERE ARE THESE MINERALS FOUND? Minerals are usually found in “ores”. The term ore is used to describe an accumulation of any mineral mixed with other elements. The mineral content of t

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Class 10 / Geography / Minerals and Energy Resources / Types of Minerals

FERROUS MINERALS – IRON ORE, MANGANESE

FERROUS MINERALS – IRON ORE, MANGANESE Ferrous minerals account for about three-fourths of the total value of the production of metallic minerals. They provide a strong base for the deve

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Class 10 / Geography / Minerals and Energy Resources / Types of Minerals

NON-FERROUS MINERALS – COPPER, BAUXITE

NON-FERROUS MINERALS – COPPER, BAUXITE Indias’  reserves and production of non- ferrous minerals are not very satisfactory. However, these minerals, which include copper, baux

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Class 10 / Geography / Minerals and Energy Resources / Types of Minerals

NONMETALLIC MINERALS – MICA

NONMETALLIC MINERALS – MICA Mica Mica is a mineral made up of a series of plates or leaves. It splits easily into thin sheets. These sheets can be so thin that a thousand can be layered in

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Class 10 / Geography / Minerals and Energy Resources / Types of Minerals

ROCK MINERALS – LIMESTONE

ROCK MINERALS – LIMESTONE Limestone Limestone is found in association with rocks composed of calcium carbonates or calcium and magnesium carbonates. It is found in sedimentary rocks of mos

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Class 10 / Geography / Minerals and Energy Resources / Hazards and Conservation of Minerals

HAZARDS OF MINING

HAZARDS OF MINING Have you ever wondered about the efforts the miners make in making life comfortable for you? What are the impacts of mining on the health of the miners and the environment? T

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Class 10 / Geography / Minerals and Energy Resources / Hazards and Conservation of Minerals

CONSERVATION OF MINERALS

CONSERVATION OF MINERALS We all appreciate the strong dependence of industry and agriculture upon mineral deposits and the substances manufactured from them. The total volume of workable mineral de

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Class 10 / Geography / Minerals and Energy Resources / Hazards and Conservation of Minerals

ENERGY RESOURCES

ENERGY RESOURCES Energy is required for all activities. It is needed to cook, to provide light and heat, to propel vehicles and to drive machinery in industries. Energy can be generated from fuel m

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Class 10 / Geography / Minerals and Energy Resources / Conventional Sources of Energy

COAL

COAL In India, coal is the most abundantly available fossil fuel. It provides a substantial part of the nation’s energy needs. It is used for power generation, to supply energy to the in

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Class 10 / Geography / Minerals and Energy Resources / Conventional Sources of Energy

PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS

PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS Petroleum Petroleum or mineral oil is the next major energy source in India after coal. It provides fuel for heat and lighting, lubricants for machinery, and raw materi

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Class 10 / Geography / Minerals and Energy Resources / Conventional Sources of Energy

ELECTRICITY

ELECTRICITY Electricity has such a wide range of applications in today's world that, its per capita consumption is considered as an index of development. Electricity is gene

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Class 10 / Geography / Minerals and Energy Resources / Non-Conventional Sources of Energy

NUCLEAR OR ATOMIC ENERGY, SOLAR ENERGY

NUCLEAR OR ATOMIC ENERGY, SOLAR ENERGY Non-Conventional Sources of Energy The growing consumption of energy has resulted in the country becoming increasingly dependent on fossil fuels such as co

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Class 10 / Geography / Minerals and Energy Resources / Non-Conventional Sources of Energy

WIND POWER, BIO GAS

WINDPOWER, BIOGAS Windpower   India has great potential of wind power. The largest wind farm cluster is located in Tamil Nadu from Nagarcoil to Madurai. Apart from these, Andhra Pradesh,

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Class 10 / Geography / Minerals and Energy Resources / Non-Conventional Sources of Energy

TIDAL ENERGY, GEOTHERMAL ENERGY

TIDAL ENERGY, GEOTHERMAL ENERGY Tidal energy   Oceanic tides can be used to generate electricity. Floodgate dams are built across inlets. During high tide, water flows into the inlet and

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Class 10 / Geography / Minerals and Energy Resources / Conservation of Energy Resources

ENERGY SAVED IS ENERGY PRODUCED

ENERGY SAVED IS ENERGY PRODUCED Energy is a basic requirement for economic development. Every sector of the national economy – agriculture, industry, transport, commercial, and domestic &ndas

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Class 10 / Geography / Manufacturing Industries / Introduction to Manufacturing Industries

SOME IDEAS ABOUT INDUSTRIES

SOME IDEAS ABOUT INDUSTRIES On the occassion of Diwali, Harish went to a market with his parents. They purchased shoes and clothes for him. His mother purchased utensils, sugar, tea and diyas (eart

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Class 10 / Geography / Manufacturing Industries / Importance of Manufacturing

BACKBONE OF DEVELOPMENT

BACKBONE OF DEVELOPMENT Manufacturing sector is considered the backbone of development in general and economic development in particular mainly because - *   Manufacturing industries n

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Class 10 / Geography / Manufacturing Industries / Importance of Manufacturing

CONTRIBUTION TO NATIONAL ECONOMY

CONTRIBUTION TO NATIONAL ECONOMY Over the last two decades, the share of the manufacturing sector has stagnated at 17 percent of GDP – out of a total of 27 percent for the industry

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Class 10 / Geography / Manufacturing Industries / Importance of Manufacturing

INDUSTRIAL LOCATION

INDUSTRIAL LOCATION Industrial locations are complex in nature. These are influenced by the availability of raw material, labour, capital, power and market, etc. It is rarely possible to find

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Class 10 / Geography / Manufacturing Industries / Classification of Industries

ON THE BASIS OF SOURCE OF RAW MATERIALS

ON THE BASIS OF SOURCE OF RAW MATERIALS Classification of Industries List the various manufactured products you use in your daily life such as – transistors, electric bulbs, vegetable oil,

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Class 10 / Geography / Manufacturing Industries / Classification of Industries

ON THE BASIS OF OWNERSHIP

ON THE BASIS OF OWNERSHIP *   Public sector, owned and operated by government agencies – BHEL, SAIL etc. *   Private sector industries owned and operated by individuals

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Class 10 / Geography / Manufacturing Industries / Classification of Industries

BASED ON BULK AND WEIGHT

BASED ON BULK AND WEIGHT Based on the bulk and weight of raw material and finished goods: *   Heavy industries such as iron and steel *   Light industries that use light r

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Class 10 / Geography / Manufacturing Industries / Agro-based Industries

TEXTILES INDUSTRY – COTTON TEXTILES

TEXTILES INDUSTRY – COTTON TEXTILES Agro-based Industries Cotton, jute, silk, woollen textiles, sugar and edible oil, etc. industries are based on agricultural raw materials.  

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Class 10 / Geography / Manufacturing Industries / Agro-based Industries

JUTE TEXTILES

JUTE TEXTILES   India is the largest producer of raw jute and jute goods and stands at second place as an exporter after Bangladesh. Most of the mills are located in West Bengal, mainly alo

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Class 10 / Geography / Manufacturing Industries / Agro-based Industries

SUGAR INDUSTRY

SUGAR INDUSTRY India stands second as a world producer of sugar but occupies first place in the production of gur and khandsari. The raw material used in this industry is bulky, and in haulage its

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Class 10 / Geography / Manufacturing Industries / Mineral-based Industries

IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY

IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY Mineral-based Industries Industries that use minerals and metals as raw materials are called mineral-based industries. Can you name some industries that would fall in thi

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Class 10 / Geography / Manufacturing Industries / Mineral-based Industries

ALUMINIUM SMELTING

ALUMINIUM SMELTING Aluminium smelting is the second most important metallurgical industry in India. It is light, resistant to corrosion, a good conductor of heat, malleable and becomes strong when

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Class 10 / Geography / Manufacturing Industries / Chemical Industries

FAST GROWING AND DIVERSIFYING

FAST GROWING AND DIVERSIFYING The Chemical industry in India is fast growing and diversifying. It comprises both large and small scale manufacturing units. Rapid growth has been recorded in both in

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Class 10 / Geography / Manufacturing Industries / Chemical Industries

FERTILIZER AND CEMENT INDUSTRY

FERTILIZER AND CEMENT INDUSTRY Fertilizer Industry The fertilizer industry is centred around the production of nitrogenous fertilizers (mainly urea), phosphatic fertilizers and ammonium phosphat

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Class 10 / Geography / Manufacturing Industries / Automobile, IT and Electronic Industry

AUTOMOBILE, IT AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRY

FERTILIZER AND CEMENT INDUSTRY Automobile Industry Automobiles provide vehicle for quick transport of good services and passengers. Trucks, buses, cars, motor cycles, scooters, three-wheelers an

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Class 10 / Geography / Manufacturing Industries / Industrial Pollution and Environmental Degradation

AIR AND WATER POLLUTION

AIR AND WATER POLLUTION Industrial Pollution and Environmental Degradation Although industries contribute significantly to India’s economic growth and development, the increase in pollutio

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Class 10 / Geography / Manufacturing Industries / Industrial Pollution and Environmental Degradation

THERMAL AND NOISE POLLUTION

THERMAL AND NOISE POLLUTION Thermal pollution Thermal pollution of water occurs when hot water from factories and thermal plants is drained into rivers and ponds before cooling. What would be th

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Class 10 / Geography / Manufacturing Industries / Control of Environmental Degradation

CONTROL OF INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION

CONTROL OF INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION Every litre of waste water discharged by our industry pollutes eight times the quantity of freshwater. How can the industrial pollution of fresh water be reduce

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Class 10 / Chemistry / Chemical Reactions and Equations / Types Of Chemical Reactions

DISPLACEMENT REACTION

DISPLACEMENT REACTION   Activity 1.9 ( Iron displacing copper from copper sulphate solution ): Figure 1.8(a): Iron nails dipped in copper sulphate solution   * &

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Class 10 / English / A Letter to God / A Letter to God

A LETTER TO GOD

Before you read They say faith can move mountains. But what should we put our faith in? This is the question this story delicately poses.   Lencho is a farmer who writes a letter to God

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Class 10 / English / Dust of Snow / Dust of Snow

DUST OF SNOW

DUST OF SNOW - ROBERT FROST (Poet) Poem The way a crow Shook down on me The dust of snow From a hemlock tree   Has given my heart A change of mood And saved some p

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Class 10 / English / Fire and Ice / Fire and Ice

FIRE AND ICE

FIRE AND ICE - ROBERT FROST (Poet) Poem Some say the world will end in fire Some say in ice. From what I’ve tasted of desire I hold with those who favour fire   But i

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Class 10 / English / A Long Walk to Freedom / Nelson Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom

LONG WALK TO FREEDOM

Before you read *    ‘Apartheid’ is a political system that separates people according to their race. Can you say which of the three countries named below had such a poli

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Class 10 / English / The Tiger in the Zoo / A Tiger in the Zoo

A TIGER IN THE ZOO

A TIGER IN THE ZOO - LESLIE NORRIS (Poet) Poem He stalks in his vivid stripes The few steps of his cage, On pads of velvet quiet, In his quiet rage.   He should be lurking i

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Class 10 / English / His First Flight / His First Flight

HIS FIRST FLIGHT

Before you read Since the earliest times, humans have dreamt of conquering the skies. Here are two stories about flying.  I.  A young seagull is afraid to fly. How does he conquer his

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Class 10 / English / Black Aeroplane / Black Aeroplane

BLACK AEROPLANE

STORY – BLACK AEROPLANE – FREDERICK FORSYTH (Author) The moon was coming up in the east, behind me, and stars were shining in the clear sky above me. There wasn’t a cloud in the s

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Class 10 / English / How to Tell Wild Animals / How to Tell Wild Animals

How to Tell Wild Animals

How to Tell Wild Animals - CAROLYN WELLS (Poet) Poem If ever you should go by chance To jungles in the east; And if there should to you advance A large and tawny beast, If he roars

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Class 10 / English / The Ball Poem / The Ball Poem

The Ball Poem

THE BALL POEM - JOHN BERRYMAN (Poet) Before you read A boy loses a ball. He is very upset. A ball doesn’t cost much, nor is it difficult to buy another ball. Why then is the boy so upset?

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Class 10 / English / From the Diary of Anne Frank / From the Diary of Anne Frank

FROM THE DIARY OF ANNE FRANK

Before you read Anneliese Marie ‘Anne’ Frank (12 June 1929 – February/March 1945) was a German-born Jewish girl who wrote while in hiding with her family and four friends i

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Class 10 / English / Amanda / Amanda

Amanda!

Amanda! - ROBIN KLEIN (Poet) Poem Don’t bite your nails, Amanda! Don’t hunch your shoulders, Amanda! Stop that slouching and sit up straight, Amanda!   (There is a

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Class 10 / English / Hundred Dresses Part - 1 / The Hundred Dresses–I

THE HUNDRED DRESSES - I

Before you read *   How do we judge the people around us — by their money, wealth and possessions? Or is there something of more enduring value to look for in a person? *  &

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Class 10 / English / The Hundred Dresses–II / The Hundred Dresses–II

THE HUNDRED DRESSES - II

STORY – THE HUNDRED DRESSES - II – ELEANOR ESTES (Author) While the class was circling the room, the monitor from the principal’s office brought Miss Mason a note. Miss Mason read

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Class 10 / English / Animals / Animals

ANIMALS

ANIMALS - WALT WHITMAN (Poet) Before you read The poet tells us that he feels more at home with animals than humans, whom he finds complicated and false. The poem is taken from ‘So

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Class 10 / English / A Baker from Goa / A Baker from Goa

A BAKER FROM GOA

Before you read Activity: Discuss in class 1.  What images — of people and of places — come to your mind, when you think of our country? 2.  What parts of India have

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Class 10 / English / Coorg / Coorg

COORG

STORY – COORG – LOKESH ABROL (Author) Coorg is a coffee country, famous for its rainforests and spices.   Midway between Mysore and the coastal town of Mangalore sits a piece

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Class 10 / English / Tea from Assam / Tea from Assam

TEA FROM ASSAM

STORY – TEA FROM ASSAM – ARUP KUMAR DATTA (Author) Pranjol, a youngster from Assam, is Rajvir’s classmate at school in Delhi. Pranjol’s father is the manager of a tea-garden

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Class 10 / English / The Trees / The Trees

THE TREES

THE TREES - ADRIENNE RICH (Poet) Before you read Can there be a forest without trees? Where are the trees in this poem, and where do they go?   Poet Adrienne Rich was born in Balti

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Class 10 / English / Mijbil the Otter / Mijbil the Otter

MIJBIL THE OTTER

  Before you read Gavin Maxwell lives in a cottage in Camusfearna, in the West Highlands in Scotland. When his dog Jonnie died, Maxwell was too sad to think of keeping a dog again. But life

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Class 10 / English / Fog / Fog

FOG

  FOG - CARL SANDBURG (Poet) Poem The fog comes on little cat feet. It sits looking over harbour and city on silent haunches and then moves on.     &

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Class 10 / English / Madam Rides the Bus / Madam Rides the Bus

MADAM RIDES THE BUS

Before you read In this sensitive story, an eight-year-old girl’s first bus journey into the world outside her village is also her induction into the mystery of life and death. She sees the g

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Class 10 / English / The Tale of Custard the Dragon / The Tale of Custard the Dragon

THE TALE OF CUSTARD THE DRAGON

THE TALE OF CUSTARD THE DRAGON – OGDEN NASH (Poet) Before you read This poem is written in the style of a ballad — a song or poem that tells a story. You must be familiar with bal

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Class 10 / English / The Sermon at Benares / The Sermon at Benares

THE SERMON AT BENARES

Before you read [Source: Betty Renshaw Values and Voices: A College Reader (1975)]   Activity: Use a dictionary or ask for your teacher’s help as you discuss the following qu

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Class 10 / English / For Anne Gregory / For Anne Gregory

FOR ANNE GREGORY

FOR ANNE GREGORY - WILLIAM BUTLER YEATS (Poet) Before you read This poem is a conversation between a young man and a young woman. What are they arguing about?   Poet William Butler

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Class 10 / English / The Proposal / The Proposal

THE PROPOSAL

Before you read   ‘The Proposal’ (originally titled ‘A Marriage Proposal’) is a one-act play, a farce, by the Russian short-story writer and dramatist Anto

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Class 10 / Geography / Lifelines of National Economy / Introduction

TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATION

TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATION We use different materials and services in our daily life. Some of these are available in our immediate surroundings, while other requirements are met by bringing things

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Class 10 / Geography / Lifelines of National Economy / Modes of Transport

ROADWAYS

ROADWAYS India has one of the largest road networks in the world, aggregating to about 56 lakh km. In India, roadways have preceded railways. They still have an edge over railways in view of the ea

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Class 10 / Geography / Lifelines of National Economy / Modes of Transport

RAILWAYS

RAILWAYS Railways are the principal mode of transportation for freight and passengers in India. Railways also make it possible for people to conduct multifarious activities like business, sightseei

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Class 10 / Geography / Lifelines of National Economy / Modes of Transport

PIPELINES

PIPELINES Pipeline transport network is a new arrival on the transportation map of India. In the past, these were used to transport water to cities and industries. Now, these are used for transport

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Class 10 / Geography / Lifelines of National Economy / Modes of Transport

WATERWAYS

WATERWAYS Since the ancient period, India was one of the seafaring countries. Its seamen sailed far and near, thus, carrying and spreading Indian commerce and culture. Waterways are the cheapest me

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Class 10 / Geography / Lifelines of National Economy / Modes of Transport

AIRWAYS

AIRWAYS Air travel, today, is the fastest, most comfortable and prestigious mode of transport. It can cover very difficult terrains like high mountains, dreary deserts, dense forests and also

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Class 10 / Geography / Lifelines of National Economy / Communication

DIFFERENT COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

DIFFERENT COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS Ever since humans appeared on the earth, they have used different means of communication. But, the pace of change, has been rapid in modern times. Long-distance comm

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Class 10 / Geography / Lifelines of National Economy / Trade

INTERNATIONAL TRADE

INTERNATIONAL TRADE The exchange of goods among people, states, and countries is referred to as trade. The market is the place where such exchanges take place. Trade between the two countries is ca

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Class 10 / Geography / Lifelines of National Economy / Trade

TOURISM AS A TRADE

TOURISM AS A TRADE Tourism in India has grown substantially over the last three decades. More than 15 million people are directly engaged in the tourism industry. Tourism also promotes national

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Class 10 / Economics / Development / Understanding Economic Development

WHAT IS DEVELOPMENT?

WHAT IS DEVELOPMENT? The idea of development or progress has always been with us. We have aspirations or desires about what we would like to do and how we would like to live. Similarly, we have ide

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Class 10 / Economics / Development / Development Promises

DIFFERENT PEOPLE AND DIFFERENT GOALS

DIFFERENT PEOPLE AND DIFFERENT GOALS Let us try to imagine what development or progress is likely to mean to different persons listed in Table 1.1. What are their aspirations? You will find th

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Class 10 / Economics / Development / Development Promises

INCOME AND OTHER GOALS

INCOME AND OTHER GOALS Category of Person Developmental Goals/ Aspirations Landless rural labourers More days of work and better wages; local school is able to provi

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Class 10 / Economics / Development / Development Promises

NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT If, as we have seen above, individuals seek different goals, then their notion of national development is also likely to be different. Discuss among yourselves on what India sh

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Class 10 / Economics / Development / Development Comparisons

HOW TO COMPARE DIFFERENT COUNTRIES AND STATES?

HOW TO COMPARE DIFFERENT COUNTRIES AND STATES? You might ask if development can mean different things, how come some countries are generally called developed and others underdeveloped? Before we co

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Class 10 / Economics / Development / Development Comparisons

AVERAGE INCOME

AVERAGE INCOME While ‘averages’ are useful for comparison, they also hide disparities. For example, let us consider two countries, A and B. For the sake of simplicity, we have a

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Class 10 / Economics / Development / Development Comparisons

INCOME AND OTHER CRITERIA

INCOME AND OTHER CRITERIA When we looked at individual aspirations and goals, we found that people not only think of better income but also have goals such as security, respect for others, equal tr

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Class 10 / Economics / Development / Development Comparisons

PUBLIC FACILITIES

PUBLIC FACILITIES How is it that the average person in Haryana has more income than the average person in Kerala but lags behind in these crucial areas? The reason is — money in your pocket c

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Class 10 / Economics / Development / Development Comparisons

HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT

HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT Once it is realised that even though the level of income is important, yet it is an inadequate measure of the level of development, we begin to think of other criteria. The

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Class 10 / Economics / Development / Sustainability of Development

GROUND WATER AND EXHAUSTION OF NATURAL RESOURCES

GROUNDWATER AND EXHAUSTION OF NATURAL RESOURCES Sustainability of development Suppose for the present that a particular country is quite developed. We would certainly like this level of developm

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Class 10 / Economics / Sectors Of The Indian Economy / Introduction to Sectors of the Indian Economy

UNDERSTANDING SECTORS OF INDIAN ECONOMY

UNDERSTANDING SECTORS OF INDIAN ECONOMY An economy is best understood when we study its components or sectors. Sectoral classification can be done on the basis of several criteria. In this chapter,

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Class 10 / Economics / Sectors Of The Indian Economy / Sectors of Economic activities

PRIMARY SECTORS

PRIMARY SECTORS Sectors Let us look at these pictures. You will find that people are engaged in various economic activities. Some of these are activities for producing goods. Some others are pro

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Class 10 / Economics / Sectors Of The Indian Economy / Sectors of Economic activities

SECONDARY SECTOR

SECONDARY SECTOR The secondary sector covers activities in which natural products are changed into other forms through ways of manufacturing that we associate with industrial activity. It is the ne

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Class 10 / Economics / Sectors Of The Indian Economy / Sectors of Economic activities

TERTIARY SECTOR

TERTIARY SECTOR After primary and secondary, there is a third category of activities that falls under tertiary sector and is different from the above two. These are activities that help in the deve

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Class 10 / Economics / Sectors Of The Indian Economy / Sectors of Economic activities

COMPARING THREE SECTORS

COMPARING THREE SECTORS The various production activities in the primary, secondary and tertiary sectors produce a very large number of goods and services. Also, the three sectors have a large numb

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Class 10 / Economics / Sectors Of The Indian Economy / Sectors of Economic activities

HISTORICAL CHANGE IN SECTORS

HISTORICAL CHANGE IN SECTORS Generally, it has been noted from the histories of many, now developed, countries that at initial stages of development, the primary sector was the most important secto

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Class 10 / Economics / Sectors Of The Indian Economy / Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Sectors in India

RISING IMPORTANCE OF TERTIARY SECTOR IN PRODUCTION

RISING IMPORTANCE OF TERTIARY SECTOR IN PRODUCTION Primary, secondary and tertiary sectors in India Graph 1 shows the production of goods and services in the three sectors. This is shown for two

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Class 10 / Economics / Sectors Of The Indian Economy / Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Sectors in India

WHERE ARE MOST OF THE PEOPLE EMPLOYED?

WHERE ARE MOST OF THE PEOPLE EMPLOYED? Graph 2 presents percentage share of the three sectors in GDP. Now you can directly see the changing importance of the sectors over the forty years. &nbs

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Class 10 / Economics / Sectors Of The Indian Economy / Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Sectors in India

HOW TO CREATE MORE EMPLOYMENT?

HOW TO CREATE MORE EMPLOYMENT? From the previous discussion, we can see that there continues to be considerable underemployment in agriculture. There are also people who are not employed

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Class 10 / Economics / Sectors Of The Indian Economy / Division of Sectors

ORGANISED AND UNORGANISED SECTORS

ORGANISED AND UNORGANISED SECTORS Let us examine another way of classifying activities in the economy. This looks at the way people are employed. What are their conditions of work? Are there any ru

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Class 10 / Economics / Sectors Of The Indian Economy / Division of Sectors

HOW TO PROTECT WORKERS IN THE UNORGANISED SECTORS?

HOW TO PROTECT WORKERS IN THE UNORGANISED SECTORS? The organised sector offers jobs that are the most sought-after. But the employment opportunities in the organised sector have been expanding very

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Class 10 / Economics / Sectors Of The Indian Economy / Sectors in terms of Ownership

PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTORS

PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTORS Another way of classifying economic activities into sectors could be on the basis of who owns assets and is responsible for the delivery of services. In the public se

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Class 10 / Economics / Money And Credit / Introduction to Money and Credit

MONEY – APART OF LIFE

MONEY – APART OF LIFE Money is a fascinating subject and full of curiosities. It is important to capture this element for the students. The history of money and how various forms were used at

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Class 10 / Economics / Money And Credit / Money as a Medium of Exchange

DOUBLE COINCIDENCE OF WANTS

DOUBLE COINCIDENCE OF WANTS The use of money spans a very large part of our everyday life. Look around you and you would easily be able to identify several transactions involving money in any singl

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Class 10 / Economics / Money And Credit / Modern Forms of Money

CURRENCY

CURRENCY We have seen that money is something that can act as a medium of exchange in transactions. Before the introduction of coins, a variety of objects was used as money. For example, since the

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Class 10 / Economics / Money And Credit / Modern Forms of Money

DEPOSITS WITH BANKS

DEPOSITS WITH BANKS The other form in which people hold money is as deposits with banks. At a point of time, people need only some currency for their day-to-day needs. For instance, workers who rec

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Class 10 / Economics / Money And Credit / Loan Activities of Banks

DEPOSITORS AND BORROWERS

DEPOSITORS AND BORROWERS Let us take the story of banks further. What do the banks do with the deposits which they accept from the public? There is an interesting mechanism at work here. Banks keep

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Class 10 / Economics / Money And Credit / Two Different Credit Situations

FESTIVAL SEASON

FESTIVAL SEASON Two Different Credit Situations A large number of transactions in our day-to-day activities involve credit in some form or the other. Credit (loan) refers to an agreement in whic

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Class 10 / Economics / Money And Credit / Two Different Credit Situations

SWAPNA’S PROBLEM

SWAPNA’S PROBLEM Swapna, a small farmer, grows groundnut on her three acres of land. She takes a loan from the moneylender to meet the expenses of cultivation, hoping that her harvest would h

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Class 10 / Economics / Money And Credit / Terms of Credit

A HOUSE LOAN

A HOUSE LOAN Terms of Credit Every loan agreement specifies an interest rate which the borrower must pay to the lender along with the repayment of the principal. In addition, lenders may de

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Class 10 / Economics / Money And Credit / Terms of Credit

VARIETY OF CREDIT ARRANGEMENTS

VARIETY OF CREDIT ARRANGEMENTS Example of a Village Rohit and Ranjan had finished reading about the terms of credit in the class. They were eager to know the various credit arrangements that exi

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Class 10 / Economics / Money And Credit / Terms of Credit

LOANS FROM COOPERATIVES

LOANS FROM COOPERATIVES Besides banks, the other major source of cheap credit in rural areas are the cooperative societies (or cooperatives). Members of a cooperative pool their resources for

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Class 10 / Economics / Money And Credit / Formal Sector Credit in India

FORMAL AND INFORMAL SECTOR LOANS

FORMAL AND INFORMAL SECTOR LOANS We have seen in the above examples that people obtain loans from various sources. The various types of loans can be conveniently grouped as formal sector loans and

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Class 10 / Economics / Money And Credit / Formal Sector Credit in India

FORMAL AND INFORMAL CREDIT: WHO GETS WHAT?

FORMAL AND INFORMAL CREDIT: WHO GETS WHAT? Graph 2 shows the importance of formal and informal sources of credit for people in urban areas. The people are divided into four groups, from poor to ric

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Class 10 / Economics / Money And Credit / Self-Help groups For the Poor

SHGs

SHGs In the previous section, we have seen that poor households are still dependent on informal sources of credit. Why is it so? Banks are not present everywhere in rural India. Even when they are

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Class 10 / Economics / Money And Credit / Self-Help groups For the Poor

GRAMEEN BANK OF BANGLADESH

GRAMEEN BANK OF BANGLADESH Grameen Bank of Bangladesh is one of the biggest success stories in reaching the poor to meet their credit needs at reasonable rates. Started in the 1970s as a small proj

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Class 10 / Economics / Globalisation And The Indian Economy / Globalisation

INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION Most regions of the world are getting increasingly interconnected. While this interconnectedness across countries has many dimensions — cultural, political, social and economic &

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Class 10 / Economics / Globalisation And The Indian Economy / Production Across Countries

MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS

MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS Until the middle of the twentieth century, production was largely organised within countries. What crossed the boundaries of these countries were raw material, foods

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Class 10 / Economics / Globalisation And The Indian Economy / Interlinking Production Across Countries

PRODUCTION BY MNCs

PRODUCTION BY MNCs In general, MNCs set up production where it is close to the markets; where there is skilled and unskilled labour available at low costs; and where the availability of other facto

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Class 10 / Economics / Globalisation And The Indian Economy / Foreign Trade and Integration of Markets

FOREIGN TRADE - THE MAIN CHANNEL

FOREIGN TRADE -  THE MAIN CHANNEL For a long time, foreign trade has been the main channel connecting countries. In history, you would have read about the trade routes connecting India an

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Class 10 / Economics / Globalisation And The Indian Economy / What is Globalisation?

WHAT IS GLOBALISATION

WHAT IS GLOBALISATION? In the past two to three decades, more and more MNCs have been looking for locations around the world which would be cheap for their production. Foreign investment by MNCs in

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Class 10 / Economics / Globalisation And The Indian Economy / Factors that have Enabled Globalisation

TECHNOLOGY

TECHNOLOGY Rapid improvement in technology has been one major factor that has stimulated the globalisation process. For instance, the past fifty years have seen several improvements in transportati

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Class 10 / Economics / Globalisation And The Indian Economy / Factors that have Enabled Globalisation

LIBERALISATION OF POLICIES

LIBERALISATION OF POLICIES Let us return to the example of imports of Chinese toys in India. Suppose the Indian government puts a tax on the import of toys. What would happen? Those who wish t

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Class 10 / Economics / Globalisation And The Indian Economy / World Trade Organisation

WTO – CONNECTIVITY OF TRADE

WTO – CONNECTIVITY OF TRADE We have seen that the liberalisation of foreign trade and investment in India was supported by some very powerful international organisations. These organisations

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Class 10 / Economics / Globalisation And The Indian Economy / Impact of Globalisation on India

IMPACT OF MNCS AND TOP INDIAN COMPANIES

IMPACT OF MNCS AND TOP INDIAN COMPANIES In the last twenty years, globalisation of the Indian economy has come a long way. What has been its effect on the lives of people? Let us look at some of th

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Class 10 / Economics / Globalisation And The Indian Economy / Impact of Globalisation on India

SMALL PRODUCERS – COMPETE OR PERISH

SMALL PRODUCERS – COMPETE OR PERISH For a large number of small producers and workers, globalisation has posed major challenges.   Batteries, capacitors, plastics, toys, tyres, dai

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Class 10 / Economics / Globalisation And The Indian Economy / The struggle for a Fair Globalisation

HOW TO MAKE GLOBALISATION MORE ‘FAIR’?

HOW TO MAKE GLOBALISATION MORE ‘FAIR’? The above evidence indicates that not everyone has benefited from globalisation. People with education, skill, and wealth have made the best use o

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Class 10 / Economics / Consumer Rights / Introduction to Consumer Rights

WHAT IS CONSUMER RIGHT?

WHAT IS CONSUMER RIGHT? This chapter proposes to discuss the issue of consumer rights within the context of the ways markets operate in our country. There are many aspects of unequal situations in

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Class 10 / Economics / Consumer Rights / Consumer in the Market Place

RULES TO PROTECT CONSUMERS

RULES TO PROTECT CONSUMERS We participate in the market both as producers and consumers. As producers of goods and services we could be working in any of the sectors discussed earlier such as agric

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Class 10 / Economics / Consumer Rights / Consumer Movement

THE CONSUMER MOVEMENT – A ‘SOCIAL FORCE’

THE CONSUMER MOVEMENT – A ‘SOCIAL FORCE’ The consumer movement arose out of dissatisfaction of the consumers as many unfair practices were being indulged in by the sellers. There

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Class 10 / Economics / Consumer Rights / Consumer Rights

SAFETY IS EVERYONE’S RIGHT

SAFETY IS EVERYONE’S RIGHT Reij's suffering Reji Mathew, a healthy boy studying in Class IX, was admitted in a private clinic in Kerala for the removal of tonsils. An ENT surgeon perfo

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Class 10 / Economics / Consumer Rights / Consumer Rights

INFORMATION ABOUT GOODS AND SERVICES

INFORMATION ABOUT GOODS AND SERVICES When you buy any commodity, you will find certain details given on the packing. These details are about ingredients used, price, batch number, date of manufactu

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Class 10 / Economics / Consumer Rights / Consumer Rights

WHEN CHOICE IS DENIED

WHEN CHOICE IS DENIED Refund Abirami, a student of Ansari Nagar, joined a two year course at a local coaching institute for professional courses in New Delhi. At the time of joining the course,

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Class 10 / Economics / Consumer Rights / Consumer Rights

WHERE SHOULD CONSUMERS GO TO GET JUSTICE?

WHERE SHOULD CONSUMERS GO TO GET JUSTICE? Read again the cases of Reji Mathew and Abirami given earlier in the chapter.   1. Reji Mathew, a healthy boy studying in Class IX, was admitted

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Class 10 / Economics / Consumer Rights / Consumer Rights

LEARNING TO BECOME WELL-INFORMED CONSUMERS

LEARNING TO BECOME WELL-INFORMED CONSUMERS     When we as consumers become conscious of our rights, while purchasing various goods and services, we will be able to discriminate

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Class 10 / Economics / Consumer Rights / Consumer Rights

ISI AND AGMARK

ISI AND AGMERK     While buying many commodities, on the cover, you might have seen a logo with the letters ISI, Agmark or Hallmark. These logos and certification help consumers get

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Class 10 / Economics / Consumer Rights / Taking the Consumer Movement Forward

COPRA

COPRA India has been observing 24 December as the National Consumers’ Day. It was on this day that the Indian Parliament enacted the Consumer Protection Act in 1986. India is one of the

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Class 10 / Political science / Power-sharing / Belgium and Srilanka

COMMUNITIES AND REGIONS

COMMUNITIES AND REGIONS Belgium is a small country in Europe, smaller in area than the state of Haryana. It has borders with France, the Netherlands, Germany, and Luxembourg. It has a population of

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Class 10 / Political science / Power-sharing / Belgium and Srilanka

MAJORITARIANISM IN SRI LANKA

MAJORITARIANISM IN SRI LANKA Sri Lanka emerged as an independent country in 1948. The leaders of the Sinhala community sought to secure dominance over the government by virtue of their majority. As

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Class 10 / Political science / Power-sharing / Belgium and Srilanka

ACCOMMODATION IN BELGIUM

ACCOMMODATION IN BELGIUM The Belgian leaders took a different path. They recognised the existence of regional differences and cultural diversities. Between 1970 and 1993, they amended their constit

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Class 10 / Political science / Power-sharing / Power Sharing

WHY POWER SHARING IS DESIRABLE?

WHY POWER SHARING IS DESIRABLE? Thus, two different sets of reasons can be given in favour of power-sharing.   1. Power-sharing is good because it helps to reduce the possibility of co

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Class 10 / Political science / Power-sharing / Power Sharing

KHALIL’S DILEMMA

KHALIL’S DILEMMA As usual, Vikram was driving the motorbike under a vow of silence and Vetal was the pillion rider. As usual, Vetal started telling Vikram a story to keep him awake while driv

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Class 10 / Political science / Power-sharing / Forms of Power-Sharing

IDEA OF POWER SHARING

IDEA OF POWER SHARING The idea of power-sharing has emerged in opposition to the notions of undivided political power. For a long time, it was believed that all power of a government must resi

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Class 10 / Political science / Power-sharing / Forms of Power-Sharing

POWER SHARING AMONG ORGANS OF GOVERNMENT

POWER SHARING AMONG ORGANS OF GOVERNMENT Power is shared among different organs of government, such as the legislature, executive, and judiciary. Let us call this horizontal distribution of power b

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Class 10 / Political science / Power-sharing / Forms of Power-Sharing

POWER SHARING AT DIFFERENT LEVELS OF GOVERNMENT

POWER SHARING AT DIFFERENT LEVELS OF GOVERNMENT Power can be shared among governments at different levels – a general government for the entire country and governments at the provincial or

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Class 10 / Political science / Power-sharing / Forms of Power-Sharing

POWER SHARING AMONG SOCIAL GROUPS

POWER SHARING AMONG SOCIAL GROUPS Power may also be shared among different social groups such as the religious and linguistic groups. ‘Community government’ in Belgium is a good examp

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Class 10 / Political science / Power-sharing / Forms of Power-Sharing

OTHER POWER SHARING ARRANGEMENTS

OTHER POWER SHARING ARRANGEMENTS Power-sharing arrangements can also be seen in the way political parties, pressure groups, and movements control or influence those in power. In a democracy, the

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Class 10 / Political science / Federalism / Introduction to Federalism

WHAT IS FEDERALISM?

WHAT IS FEDERALISM? Let us get back to the contrast between Belgium and Sri Lanka that we saw in the last chapter. You would recall that one of the key changes made in the Constitution of Belgium w

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Class 10 / Political science / Federalism / What makes India a Federal Country?

PRINCIPLES OF FEDERALISM

PRINCIPLES OF FEDERALISM We have earlier seen how small countries like Belgium and Sri Lanka face so many problems of managing diversity. What about a vast country like India, with so many language

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Class 10 / Political science / Federalism / How is Federalism Practised?

LINGUISTIC STATES

LINGUISTIC STATES Constitutional provisions are necessary for the success of federalism but these are not sufficient. If the federal experiment has succeeded in India, it is not merely because of t

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Class 10 / Political science / Federalism / How is Federalism Practised?

LANGUAGE POLICY

LANGUAGE POLICY A second test for Indian federation is the language policy. Our Constitution did not give the status of national language to any one language. Hindi was identified as the official l

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Class 10 / Political science / Federalism / How is Federalism Practised?

CENTRE- STATE RELATIONS

CENTRE- STATE RELATIONS Restructuring the Centre-State relations is one more way in which federalism has been strengthened in practice. How the constitutional arrangements for sharing power work, i

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Class 10 / Political science / Federalism / How is Federalism Practised?

LINGUISTIC DIVERSITY OF INDIA

LINGUISTIC DIVERSITY OF INDIA How many languages do we have in India? The answer depends on how one counts it. The latest information that we have is from the Census of India held in 2011. Thi

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Class 10 / Political science / Federalism / Decentralisation in India

DECENTRALISATION – A MAJOR STEP

DECENTRALISATION – A MAJOR STEP We noted above that the federal government have two or more tiers of governments. We have so far discussed the two-tiers of government in our country. But a va

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Class 10 / Political science / Federalism / Decentralisation in India

AN EXPERIMENT IN BRAZIL

AN EXPERIMENT IN BRAZIL A city called Porto Alegre in Brazil has carried out an extraordinary experiment in combining decentralisation with participative democracy. The city has set up a parallel o

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Class 10 / Political science / Democracy and Diversity / Introduction to Democracy and Diversity

A STORY FROM MEXICO OLYMPICS

A STORY FROM MEXICO OLYMPICS The pictures on this page depict an important landmark in the history of the CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT IN THE UNITED  STATES.  (Civil Rights Movement in the US

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Class 10 / Political science / Democracy and Diversity / Differences, similarities, divisions

ORIGIN OF SOCIAL DIFFERENCES

ORIGIN OF SOCIAL DIFFERENCES The athletes in the example above were responding to social divisions and social inequalities. But does that happen only in societies which have racial divisions? In th

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Class 10 / Political science / Democracy and Diversity / Differences, similarities, divisions

OVERLAPPING AND CROSS-CUTTING DIFFERENCES

OVERLAPPING AND CROSS-CUTTING DIFFERENCES Social division takes place when some social difference overlaps with other differences. The difference between Blacks and Whites becomes a social div

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Class 10 / Political science / Democracy and Diversity / Politics of Social Divisions

RANGE OF OUTCOMES

RANGE OF OUTCOMES How do these social divisions affect politics? What does politics do to these social divisions? At first sight, it would appear that the combination of politics and social divisio

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Class 10 / Political science / Democracy and Diversity / Politics of Social Divisions

BULGARIA, ROMANIA OR INDIA?

BULGARIA, ROMANIA OR INDIA? Ganesh had come back from his trip and was talking to Mahashweta about the Roma people who live in many countries of Eastern Europe. He met Yordanka who works as

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Class 10 / Political science / Democracy and Diversity / Politics of Social Divisions

THREE DETERMINANTS

THREE DETERMINANTS Three factors are crucial in deciding the outcome of politics of social divisions.   1. The outcome depends on how people perceive their identities. If people see t

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Class 10 / Political science / Gender, Religion and Caste / Gender and politics

PUBLIC /PRIVATE DIVISION

PUBLIC /PRIVATE DIVISION Let us begin with gender division. This is a form of hierarchical social division seen everywhere but is rarely recognised in the study of politics. The gender divisio

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Class 10 / Political science / Gender, Religion and Caste / Gender and politics

DISCRIMINATION AND OPPRESSION OF WOMEN

DISCRIMINATION AND OPPRESSION OF WOMEN Political expression of gender division and political mobilisation on this question helped to improve women’s role in public life. We now find wome

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Class 10 / Political science / Gender, Religion and Caste / Women’s political representation

WOMEN AS ELECTED REPRESENTATIVES

WOMEN AS ELECTED REPRESENTATIVES All this is well known. Yet issues related to women’s well-being or otherwise are not given adequate attention. This has led many feminists and women’s

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Class 10 / Political science / Gender, Religion and Caste / Religion, Communalism and Politics

DIVISION BASED ON RELIGIOUS DIFFERENCES

DIVISION BASED ON RELIGIOUS DIFFERENCES Let us now turn to a very different kind of social division, the division based on religious differences. This division is not as universal as gender, bu

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Class 10 / Political science / Gender, Religion and Caste / Religion, Communalism and Politics

COMMUNALISM

COMMUNALISM The problem begins when religion is seen as the basis of the nation. The example of Northern Ireland in Chapter 3 shows the dangers of such an approach to nationalism. The problem becom

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Class 10 / Political science / Gender, Religion and Caste / Religion, Communalism and Politics

SECULAR STATE

SECULAR STATE Communalism was and continues to be one of the major challenges to democracy in our country. The makers of our Constitution were aware of this challenge. That is why they chose the mo

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Class 10 / Political science / Gender, Religion and Caste / Caste and Politics

CASTE INEQUALITIES

CASTE INEQUALITIES We have seen two instances of the expression of social divisions in the arena of politics, one largely positive and the other largely negative. Let us turn to our final case, tha

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Class 10 / Political science / Gender, Religion and Caste / Caste and Politics

SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS DIVERSITY OF INDIA

SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS DIVERSITY OF INDIA   The Census of India records the religion of each and every Indian after every ten years. The person who fills the Census form visits every househol

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Class 10 / Political science / Gender, Religion and Caste / Caste and Politics

CASTE IN POLITICS

CASTE IN POLITICS As in the case of communalism, casteism is rooted in the belief that caste is the sole basis of the social community. According to this way of thinking, people belonging to the sa

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Class 10 / Political science / Gender, Religion and Caste / Caste and Politics

CASTE INEQUALITY TODAY

CASTE INEQUALITY TODAY Caste is an important source of economic inequality because it regulates access to resources of various kinds. For example, in the past, the so-called ‘untouchable&rsqu

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Class 10 / Political science / Gender, Religion and Caste / Caste and Politics

POLITICS IN CASTE

POLITICS IN CASTE We have so far looked at what caste does to politics. But it does not mean that there is only a one-way relation between caste and politics. Politics too influences the caste syst

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Class 10 / Political science / Popular Struggles and Movements / Popular struggles in Nepal and Bolivia

MOVEMENT FOR DEMOCRACY IN NEPAL

MOVEMENT FOR DEMOCRACY IN NEPAL Do you remember the story of the triumph of democracy in Poland? We studied it last year in the first chapter of class IX. The story reminded us about the role playe

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Class 10 / Political science / Popular Struggles and Movements / Popular struggles in Nepal and Bolivia

BOLIVIA’S WATER WAR

BOLIVIA’S WATER WAR The story of Poland and that of Nepal apply to the struggle for establishing or restoring democracy. But the role of popular struggles does not come to an end with the est

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Class 10 / Political science / Popular Struggles and Movements / Popular struggles in Nepal and Bolivia

DEMOCRACY AND POPULAR STRUGGLES

DEMOCRACY AND POPULAR STRUGGLES These two stories are from very different contexts. The movement in Nepal was to establish democracy, while the struggle in Bolivia involved claims on an elected, de

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Class 10 / Political science / Popular Struggles and Movements / Mobilisation and Organisations

ROLE OF POLITICAL PARTIES AND ORGANISATIONS

ROLE OF POLITICAL PARTIES AND ORGANISATIONS Let us go back to our two examples and look at the organisations that made these struggles successful. We noted that the call for indefinite strike was g

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Class 10 / Political science / Popular Struggles and Movements / Pressure Groups and Movements

SECTIONAL INTEREST GROUPS AND PUBLIC INTEREST GROUPS

SECTIONAL INTEREST GROUPS AND PUBLIC INTEREST GROUPS Pressure groups are organisations that attempt to influence government policies. But unlike political parties, pressure groups do not aim to dir

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Class 10 / Political science / Popular Struggles and Movements / Pressure Groups and Movements

MOVEMENT GROUPS

MOVEMENT GROUPS As in the case of interest groups, the groups involved with movements also include a very wide variety. The various examples mentioned above already indicate a simple distinction. M

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Class 10 / Political science / Popular Struggles and Movements / Pressure Groups and Movements

HOW DO THEY INFLUENCE POLITICS?

HOW DO THEY INFLUENCE POLITICS? Pressure groups and movements exert influence on politics in a variety of ways:   *  They try to gain public support and sympathy for their goal

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Class 10 / Political science / Popular Struggles and Movements / Pressure Groups and Movements

IS THEIR INFLUENCE HEALTHY?

IS THEIR INFLUENCE  HEALTHY? It may initially appear that it is not healthy for groups that promote interest of one section to have influence in democracy. A democracy must look after the inte

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Class 10 / Physics / Electricity / Electric Current and Circuit

ELECTRIC CURRENT AND CIRCUIT

ELECTRIC CURRENT AND CIRCUIT Electricity has an important place in modern society. It is a controllable and convenient form of energy for a variety of uses in homes, schools, hospitals, industries

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Class 10 / Physics / Electricity / Electric Potential and Potential Difference

WHAT IS ELECTRIC POTENTIAL AND POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE?

WHAT IS ELECTRIC POTENTIAL AND POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE? Potential Difference What makes the electric charge to flow? Let us consider the analogy of the flow of water. Charges do not flow in a

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Class 10 / Physics / Electricity / Circuit Diagram

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM – A REPRESENTATION OF ELECTRIC CIRCUIT

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM – A REPRESENTATION OF ELECTRIC CIRCUIT We know that an electric circuit, as shown in Fig. 12.1, comprises a cell (or a battery), a plug key, electrical component(s), and conne

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Class 9 / English / The Road Not Taken / The Road Not Taken

THE ROAD NOT TAKEN

THE ROAD NOT TAKEN - ROBERT FROST (Poet) Poet This well-known poem is about making choices, and the choices that shape us. Robert Frost is an American poet who writes simply, but insightfully, a

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Class 9 / English / Wind / Wind

WIND

WIND - SUBRAMANIA BHARATI (Poet) Before you read The Poet of this poem is SUBRAMANIA  BHARATI. Poem translated from Tamil by A.K. Ramanujan.   Poet Subramania Bha

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Class 9 / English / Rain On The Roof / Rain on the Roof

RAIN ON THE ROOF

RAIN ON THE ROOF - COATES KINNEY (Poet) Before you read When the sky is covered with dark clouds and it starts raining, have you ever listened to the patter of soft rain on the roof? What though

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Class 9 / English / The Lake Isle of Innisfree / The Lake Isle of Innisfree

THE LAKE ISLE OF INNISFREE

THE LAKE ISLE OF INNISFREE - WILLIAM BUTLER YEATS (Poet) Before you read This well-known poem explores the poet’s longing for the peace and tranquillity of Innisfree, a place where he spen

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Class 9 / English / A Legend of the Northland / A Legend of the Northland

A LEGEND OF THE NORTHLAND

A LEGEND OF THE NORTHLAND - PHOEBE CARY (Poet) Before you read A ballad is a song narrating a story in short stanzas. Ballads are a part of the folk culture or popular culture and are passed on

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Class 9 / English / No Men Are Foreign / No Men Are Foreign

NO MEN ARE FOREIGN

NO MEN ARE FOREIGN - JAMES KIRKUP (Poet) Before you read Have you ever thought of some people as strange, or other countries as ‘foreign’? We have many ways of thinking of other peop

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Class 9 / English / The Duck and the Kangaroo / The Duck and the Kangaroo

THE DUCK AND THE KANGAROO

THE DUCK AND THE KANGAROO - EDWARD LEAR (Poet) Before you read This is a humorous poem of a kind known as ‘Nonsense Verse’, by Edward Lear. Read it and enjoy.    

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Class 9 / English / On Killing a Tree / On Killing a Tree

ON KILLING A TREE

ON KILLING A TREE - GIEVE PATEL (Poet) Before you read You must have observed people cutting down trees. But can they kill a tree? Is it easy to do so? Let’s read the poem and find out wha

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Class 9 / English / The Snake Trying / The Snake Trying

THE SNAKE TRYING

THE SNAKE TRYING - W. W. E. ROSS (Poet) Before you read Most of us think of snakes as fearsome symbols of death. But the snake in this poem is itself a victim. Poem The snake trying to

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Class 9 / English / A Slumber Did My Spirit Seal / A Slumber Did My Spirit Seal

A SLUMBER DID MY SPIRIT SEAL

A SLUMBER DID MY SPIRIT SEAL - WILLIAM WORDSWORTH (Poet) Before you read This poem is about the death of a loved one. How does the poet feel when he thinks about her death? How does he imagine h

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Class 9 / English / If I Were You / If I Were You

IF I WERE YOU

Before you read SCENE: A small cottage interior. There is an entrance back right (which may be curtained). Another door to the left must be a practical door. The furniture is simple, consisting of

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Class 10 / Physics / Electricity / Ohm's Law

WHAT IS OHM’S LAW?

WHAT IS OHM’S LAW? Is there a relationship between the potential difference across a conductor and the current through it? Let us explore with an Activity.   Activity 12.1: *&nb

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Class 10 / Physics / Electricity / Resistance of a Conductor

DEPENDING FACTORS OF RESISTANCE OF A CONDUCTOR

DEPENDING FACTORS OF RESISTANCE OF A CONDUCTOR Activity 12.3: *  Complete an electric circuit consisting of a cell, an ammeter, a nichrome wire of length l [say, marked (1)], and

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Class 10 / Physics / Electricity / Resistance of a System of Resistors

COMBINATION OF RESISTORS

COMBINATION OF RESISTORS In preceding sections, we learnt about some simple electric circuits. We have noticed how the current through a conductor depends upon its resistance and the potential diff

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Class 10 / Physics / Electricity / Resistance of a System of Resistors

RESISTORS IN SERIES

RESISTORS IN SERIES What happens to the value of current when a number of resistors are connected in series in a circuit? What would be their equivalent resistance? Let us try to understand these w

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Class 10 / Physics / Electricity / Resistance of a System of Resistors

RESISTORS IN PARALLEL

RESISTORS IN PARALLEL Now, let us consider the arrangement of three resistors joined in parallel with a combination of cells (or a battery), as shown in Fig.12.7 Figure 12.7: Resistors

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Class 10 / Physics / Electricity / Heating Effect of Electric Current

HOW HEATING EFFECT PRODUCED BY ELECTRIC CURRENT?

HOW HEATING EFFECT PRODUCED BY ELECTRIC CURRENT? We know that a battery or a cell is a source of electrical energy. The chemical reaction within the cell generates the potential difference between

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Class 10 / Physics / Electricity / Heating Effect of Electric Current

PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS

PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS The generation of heat in a conductor is an inevitable consequence of electric current. In many cases, it is undesirable as it converts useful electrical energy into heat. In

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Class 10 / Physics / Electricity / Electric Power

WHAT IS ELECTRIC POWER?

WHAT IS ELECTRIC POWER? You have studied in your earlier Class that the rate of doing work is power. This is also the rate of consumption of energy. H = I2 Rt      

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Class 10 / Political science / Political Parties / Introduction to Political Parties

WHY DO WE NEED POLITICAL PARTIES?

WHY DO WE NEED POLITICAL PARTIES? Political parties are easily one of the most visible institutions in a democracy. For most ordinary citizens, democracy is equal to political parties. If you trave

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Class 10 / Political science / Political Parties / What are Political Parties?

MEANING OF POLITICAL PARTY

MEANING OF POLITICAL PARTY A political party is a group of people who come together to contest elections and hold power in the government. They agree on some policies and programmes for the society

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Class 10 / Political science / Political Parties / What are Political Parties?

WHAT DOES A POLITICAL PARTY DO?

WHAT DOES A POLITICAL PARTY DO? What does a political party do? Basically, political parties fill political offices and exercise political power. Parties do so by performing a series of functions:

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Class 10 / Political science / Political Parties / What are Political Parties?

NECESSITY OF POLITICAL PARTY

NECESSITY OF POLITICAL PARTY This list of functions in a sense answers the question asked above: we need political parties because they perform all these functions. But we still need to ask why mod

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Class 10 / Political science / Political Parties / How many parties should we have?

POLITICAL PARTIES REGISTERED IN INDIA

POLITICAL PARTIES REGISTERED IN INDIA In a democracy, any group of citizens is free to form a political party. In this formal sense, there are a large number of political parties in each country. M

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Class 10 / Political science / Political Parties / How many parties should we have?

A MORAL FORCE IN POLITICS

A MORAL FORCE IN POLITICS The inspiration behind the following imaginary narrative is Shri Kishen Patnaik (1930–2004), also known as Kishenji. He was elected as a Member of Parliament from Sa

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Class 10 / Political science / Political Parties / How many parties should we have?

POPULAR PARTICIPATION IN POLITICAL PARTIES

POPULAR PARTICIPATION IN POLITICAL PARTIES It is often said that political parties are facing a crisis because they are very unpopular and the citizens are indifferent to political parties.

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Class 10 / Political science / Political Parties / National parties

WHAT ARE NATIONAL PARTIES?

WHAT ARE NATIONAL PARTIES? Democracies that follow a federal system all over the world tend to have two kinds of political parties: parties that are present in only one of the federal units and p

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Class 10 / Political science / Political Parties / National parties

DIFFERENT NATIONAL PARTIES

DIFFERENT NATIONAL PARTIES According to this classification, there were seven recognised national parties in the country in 2018. Let us learn something about each of these parties. For more det

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Class 10 / Political science / Political Parties / State Parties

WHAT ARE STATE PARTIES?

WHAT ARE STATE PARTIES? Other than these seven parties, most of the major parties of the country are classified by the Election Commission as ‘State parties’. These are commonly referre

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Class 10 / Political science / Political Parties / Challenges to political parties

LACK OF INTERNAL DEMOCRACY, DYNASTIC SUCCESSION

LACK OF INTERNAL DEMOCRACY, DYNASTIC SUCCESSION Challenge to political parties We have seen how crucial political parties are for the working of democracy. Since parties are the most visible fac

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Class 10 / Political science / Political Parties / Challenges to political parties

MONEY AND MUSCLE POWER, MEANINGFUL CHOICE

MONEY AND MUSCLE POWER, MEANINGFUL CHOICE Money and muscle power in parties The third challenge is about the growing role of money and muscle power in parties, especially during elections. Since

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Class 10 / Political science / Political Parties / How Can Parties be Reformed?

FACING CHALLENGES BY REFORMING

FACING CHALLENGES BY REFORMING In order to face these challenges, political parties need to be reformed. The question is: Are political parties willing to reform? If they are willing, what has prev

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Class 10 / Political science / Outcomes of Democracy / Introduction to Outcomes of Democracy

HOW DO WE ASSESS DEMOCRACY’S OUTCOMES?

HOW DO WE ASSESS DEMOCRACY’S OUTCOMES? It emerged from that conversation that democracy is a better form of government when compared with dictatorship or any other alternative. We felt that d

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Class 10 / Political science / Outcomes of Democracy / Accountable, Responsive and Legitimate Government

DEMOCRATIC VS NON-DEMOCRATIC GOVERNMENTS

DEMOCRATIC VS NON-DEMOCRATIC GOVERNMENTS There are some things that democracy must provide. In a democracy, we are most concerned with ensuring that people will have the right to choose their ruler

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Class 10 / Political science / Outcomes of Democracy / Economic Growth and Development

RATE OF ECONOMIC GROWTH

RATE OF ECONOMIC GROWTH If democracies are expected to produce good governments, then is it not fair to expect that they would also produce development? Evidence shows that in practice many democra

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Class 10 / Political science / Outcomes of Democracy / Economic Growth and Development

ECONOMIC OUTCOMES OF DEMOCRACY

ECONOMIC OUTCOMES OF DEMOCRACY Arguments about democracy tend to be very passionate. This is how it should be, for democracy appeals to some of our deep values. These debates cannot be resolved in

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Class 10 / Political science / Outcomes of Democracy / Reduction of Inequality and Poverty

EQUALITIES AND INEQUALITIES

EQUALITIES AND INEQUALITIES Perhaps more than development, it is reasonable to expect democracies to reduce economic disparities. Even when a country achieves economic growth, will wealth be distri

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Class 10 / Political science / Outcomes of Democracy / Accommodation of Social Diversity

ROLE OF DEMOCRACY IN SOCIAL DIVERSITY

ROLE OF DEMOCRACY IN SOCIAL DIVERSITY Do democracies lead to peaceful and harmonious life among citizens? It will be a fair expectation that democracy should produce a harmonious social life. We ha

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Class 10 / Political science / Outcomes of Democracy / Dignity and Freedom of The Citizens

PROMOTING DIGNITY AND FREEDOM

PROMOTING DIGNITY AND FREEDOM Democracy stands much superior to any other form of government in promoting dignity and freedom of the individual. Every individual wants to receive respect from fello

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Class 10 / Physics / Magnetic Effects of Electric Current / Introduction to Magnetic Effects of Electric Current

INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION In the previous Chapter on Electricity , we learnt about the heating effects of electric current. What could be the other effects of electric current? We know that an electri

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Class 10 / Physics / Magnetic Effects of Electric Current / Magnetic Field and Field Lines

FINDING MAGNETIC FIELD AND FIELD LINES

FINDING MAGNETIC FIELD AND FIELD LINES We are familiar with the fact that a compass needle gets deflected when brought near a bar magnet. A compass needle is, in fact, a small bar magnet. The ends

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Class 10 / Physics / Magnetic Effects of Electric Current / Magnetic Field Due to a Current Carrying Conductor

HOW MAGNETIC FIELD IS CREATED?

HOW MAGNETIC FIELD IS CREATED? Activity 13.1: *  Take a straight thick copper wire and place it between the points X and Y in an electric circuit, as shown in Fig. 13.1. The wire XY is

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Class 10 / Physics / Magnetic Effects of Electric Current / Magnetic Field Due to a Current Carrying Conductor

MAGNETIC FIELD DUE TO A CURRENT THROUGH STRAIGHT CONDUCTOR

MAGNETIC FIELD DUE TO A CURRENT THROUGH STRAIGHT CONDUCTOR What determines the pattern of the magnetic field generated by a current through a conductor? Does the pattern depend on the shape of the

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Class 10 / Physics / Magnetic Effects of Electric Current / Magnetic Field Due to a Current Carrying Conductor

RIGHT HAND THUMB RULE

RIGHT-HAND THUMB RULE A convenient way of finding the direction of the magnetic field associated with a current-carrying conductor is given in Fig. 13.7. Figure 13.7: Right-hand thumb r

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Class 10 / Physics / Magnetic Effects of Electric Current / Magnetic Field Due to a Current Carrying Conductor

MAGNETIC FIELD DUE TO A CURRENT THROUGH A CIRCULAR LOOP

MAGNETIC FIELD DUE TO A CURRENT THROUGH A CIRCULAR LOOP We have so far observed the pattern of the magnetic field lines produced around a current carrying straight wire. Suppose this straight wire

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Class 10 / Physics / Magnetic Effects of Electric Current / Magnetic Field Due to a Current Carrying Conductor

MAGNETIC FIELD DUE TO A CURRENT IN SOLENOID

MAGNETIC FIELD DUE TO A CURRENT IN SOLENOID A coil of many circular turns of insulated copper wire wrapped closely in the shape of a cylinder is called a solenoid. The pattern of the magnetic fie

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Class 10 / Physics / Magnetic Effects of Electric Current / Force On a Current-Carrying Conductor In a Magnetic Field

IMPACT OF FORCE IN MAGNETIC FIELD

IMPACT OF FORCE IN MAGNETIC FIELD We have learnt that an electric current flowing through a conductor produces a magnetic field. The field so produced exerts a force on a magnet placed in the vicin

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Class 10 / Physics / Magnetic Effects of Electric Current / Electric Motor

ELECTRIC MOTOR

ELECTRIC MOTOR An electric motor is a rotating device that converts electrical energy to mechanical energy. Electric motor is used as an important component in electric fans, refrigerators, mixers,

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Class 10 / Physics / Magnetic Effects of Electric Current / Electromagnetic Induction

ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION

ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION We have studied that when a current-carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field such that the direction of current is perpendicular to the magnetic field, it experien

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Class 10 / Physics / Magnetic Effects of Electric Current / Electric Generator

ELECTRIC GENERATOR

ELECTRIC GENERATOR Based on the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction, the experiments studied above generate induced current, which is usually very small. This principle is also employed to prod

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Class 10 / Physics / Magnetic Effects of Electric Current / Domestic Electric Circuits

HOW DOMESTIC ELECTRIC CIRCUITS WORK?

HOW DOMESTIC ELECTRIC CIRCUITS WORK? In our homes, we receive a supply of electric power through the main supply (also called mains), either supported through overhead electric poles or b

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Class 10 / Physics / Sources of Energy / Introduction to Sources of Energy

INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION In Class IX, we learnt that the total energy during a physical or chemical process is conserved. Why, then, do we hear so much about the energy crisis? If energy can neither

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Class 10 / Physics / Sources of Energy / What is a Good Source of Energy?

DIFFERENT SOURCES OF ENERGY

DIFFERENT SOURCES OF ENERGY What can then be considered a good source of energy? We, in our daily lives, use energy from various sources for doing work. We use diesel to run our trains. We use elec

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Class 10 / Physics / Sources of Energy / Conventional Sources of Energy

FOSSIL FUELS

FOSSIL FUELS   Figure 14.1: Pie-chart showing the major sources of energy for our requirements in India In ancient times, wood was the most common source of heat energy. The ene

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Class 10 / Physics / Sources of Energy / Conventional Sources of Energy

THERMAL POWER AND HYDRO POWER PLANTS

THERMAL POWER AND HYDROPOWER PLANTS Thermal power plants Large amount of fossil fuels are burnt every day in power stations to heat up water to produce steam which further runs the turbine to ge

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Class 10 / Physics / Sources of Energy / Improvements in the Technology for using Conventional Sources of Energy

BIOMASS

BIOMASS We mentioned earlier that wood has been used as a fuel for a long time. If we can ensure that enough trees are planted, a continuous supply of fire-wood can be assured. You must also be fam

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Class 10 / Physics / Sources of Energy / Improvements in the Technology for using Conventional Sources of Energy

WIND ENERGY

WIND ENERGY We saw in Class IX how unequal heating of the landmass and water bodies by solar radiation generates air movement and causes winds to blow. This kinetic energy of the wind can be used t

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Class 10 / Physics / Sources of Energy / Non-Conventional Sources of Energy

SOLAR ENERGY

SOLAR ENERGY Alternative or non-conventional sources of energy With technological progress, our demand for energy increases day by day. Our lifestyles are also changing, we use machines to do mo

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Class 10 / Physics / Sources of Energy / Non-Conventional Sources of Energy

ENERGY FROM THE SEA – TIDAL ENERGY, WAVE ENERGY, OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY

ENERGY FROM THE SEA – TIDAL ENERGY, WAVE ENERGY, OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY Tidal Energy Due to the gravitational pull of mainly the moon on the spinning earth, the level of water in the sea ris

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Class 10 / Physics / Sources of Energy / Non-Conventional Sources of Energy

GEOTHERMAL ENERGY

GEOTHERMAL ENERGY Due to geological changes, molten rocks formed in the deeper hot regions of the earth’s crust are pushed upward and trapped in certain region called &lsq

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Class 10 / Physics / Sources of Energy / Non-Conventional Sources of Energy

NUCLEAR ENERGY

NUCLEAR ENERGY How is nuclear energy generated? In a process called nuclear fission, the nucleus of a heavy atom (such as uranium, plutonium or thorium), when bombarded with low-energy neutrons, ca

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Class 10 / Physics / Sources of Energy / Environmental Consequences

EXPLOITING SOURCES OF ENERGY

EXPLOITING SOURCES OF ENERGY We have studied various sources of energy in the previous sections. Exploiting any source of energy disturbs the environment in some way or the other. In any given situ

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Class 10 / Physics / Sources of Energy / How Long Will An Energy Source Last Us?

DEPLETION OF SOURCES OF ENERGY

DEPLETION OF SOURCES OF ENERGY We saw earlier that we cannot depend on fossil fuels for much longer. Such sources that will get depleted someday are said to be exhaustible sources or non-ren

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Class 10 / Political science / Challenges to Democracy / Thinking about Challenges

SERIOUS PROBLEMS FACED BY DEMOCRACY

SERIOUS PROBLEMS FACED BY DEMOCRACY Do you remember the chapters of your Political Science textbook of Class IX? There we tracked the expansion of democracy all over the world. Our reading thereaft

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Class 10 / Political science / Challenges to Democracy / Different Contexts, Different Challenges

CHALLENGES FOR DEMOCRACY IN DIFFERENT SITUATIONS

CHALLENGES FOR DEMOCRACY IN DIFFERENT SITUATIONS Activity: A.  Each of these cartoons represents a challenge to democracy. Please describe what that challenge is. 1.  Mubarak

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Class 10 / Political science / Challenges to Democracy / Different Types of Challenges

TYPES OF CHALLENGES

TYPES OF CHALLENGES Activity: A.   Now that you have noted down all these challenges, let us group these together into some broad categories. Given below are some spheres or sites of d

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Class 10 / Political science / Challenges to Democracy / Thinking About Political Reforms

REFORMS TO OVERCOME CHALLENGES

REFORMS TO OVERCOME CHALLENGES Each of these challenges is linked to the possibility of reforms. As mentioned above, we discuss challenges only because we think these can be overcome. Generally all

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Class 10 / Political science / Challenges to Democracy / Thinking About Political Reforms

DOCTOR’S ABSENTEEISM VS POLITICAL FUNDING

DOCTOR’S ABSENTEEISM VS POLITICAL FUNDING Here are some challenges that require political reforms. Discuss these challenges in detail. Study the reform options offered here and give your pref

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Class 10 / Political science / Challenges to Democracy / Thinking About Political Reforms

REFORMING POLITICS

REFORMING POLITICS Rose managed to catch Madam Lyngdoh outside the classroom, something she had been planning to do for some time. “Ma’am! I really liked that Ca

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Class 10 / Political science / Challenges to Democracy / Redefining Democracy

REDEFINING DEMOCRACY

REDEFINING DEMOCRACY We began this tour of democracy last year with a minimal definition of democracy. Do you remember that? This is what Chapter 2 of your textbook said last year: democracy is a f

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Class 9 / Geography / Physical Features of India / Introduction to Physical Features of India

INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION You have already learned earlier that India is a vast country with varied landforms. What kind of terrain do you live in? If you live in the plains, you are familiar with the

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Class 9 / Geography / Drainage / Drainage Systems In India

INTRODUCTION AND MAJOR GROUPS OF DRAINAGE SYSTEM

INTRODUCTION AND MAJOR GROUPS OF DRAINAGE SYSTEM The term drainage describes the river system of an area. Look at the physical map. You will notice that small streams flowing from differe

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Class 9 / Geography / Drainage / The Himalayan Rivers

THE INDUS RIVER SYSTEM

THE INDUS RIVER SYSTEM The major Himalayan rivers are the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra. These rivers are long and are joined by many large and important tributaries. A river along with

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Class 9 / Geography / Drainage / The Himalayan Rivers

THE GANGA RIVER SYSTEM

THE GANGA RIVER SYSTEM The headwaters of the Ganga, called the ‘Bhagirathi’ is fed by the Gangotri Glacier and joined by the Alaknanda at Devaprayag in Uttarakhand. At Haridwar, the Gan

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Class 9 / Geography / Drainage / The Himalayan Rivers

THE BRAHMAPUTRA RIVER SYSTEM

THE BRAHMAPUTRA RIVER SYSTEM The Brahmaputra rises in Tibet east of Mansarowar lake very close to the sources of the Indus and the Satluj. It is slightly longer than the Indus, and most of its cour

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Class 9 / Geography / Drainage / The Peninsular Rivers

THE NARMADA AND TAPI BASIN

THE NARMADA AND TAPI BASIN The Peninsular Rivers The main water divide in Peninsular India is formed by the Western Ghats, which runs from north to south close to the western coast. Most of the

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Class 9 / Geography / Drainage / The Peninsular Rivers

THE GODAVARI AND MAHANADI BASIN

THE GODAVARI AND MAHANADI BASIN The Godavari Rivers The Godavari is the largest Peninsular river. It rises from the slopes of the Western Ghats in the Nasik district of Maharashtra. Its length i

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Class 9 / Geography / Drainage / The Peninsular Rivers

THE KRISHNA AND KAVERI BASIN

THE KRISHNA AND KAVERI BASIN The Krishna Rivers Rising from a spring near Mahabaleshwar, the Krishna flows for about 1400 km and reaches the Bay of Bengal. The Tungabhadra, the Koyana, the Ghatp

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Class 9 / Geography / Drainage / Lakes

LAKES – TYPES, SIZE AND CHARACTERISTICS

LAKES – TYPES, SIZE AND CHARACTERISTICS You may be familiar with the valley of Kashmir and the famous Dal Lake, the house boats and shikaras, which attract thousands of tourists every year. S

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Class 9 / Geography / Drainage / Rivers - Economy and Pollution

ROLE OF RIVERS IN ECONOMY AND RIVER POLLUTION

ROLE OF RIVERS IN ECONOMY AND RIVER POLLUTION Role of rivers in economy Rivers have been of fundamental importance throughout the human history. Water from rivers is a basic natural resource, es

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Class 8 / English / Geography Lesson / Geography Lesson

GEOGRAPHY LESSON

GEOGRAPHY LESSON - ZULFIKAR GHOSE (Poet) Can you imagine what your city would look like if you saw it from ten thousand feet above the ground? Neatly planned and perfect in proportion like a geomet

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Class 9 / Geography / Climate / Introduction to Climate

CLIMATE AND WEATHER

CLIMATE AND WEATHER In the last two chapters you have read about the landforms and the drainage of our country. These are two of the three basic elements that one learns about the natural envi

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Class 9 / Geography / Climate / Climatic Controls

MAJOR CONTROLS OF CLIMATE

MAJOR CONTROLS OF CLIMATE There are six major controls of the climate of any place. They are: latitude, altitude, pressure and wind system, distance from the sea (continentality), ocean currents an

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Class 9 / Geography / Climate / Climatic Controls

FACTORS AFFECTING INDIA’S CLIMATE

FACTORS AFFECTING INDIA’S CLIMATE Latitude The Tropic of Cancer passes through the middle of the country from the Rann of Kuchchh in the west to Mizoram in the east. Almost half of the cou

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Class 9 / Geography / Climate / The Indian Monsoon

UNDERSTANDING MECHANISM OF MONSOON

UNDERSTANDING MECHANISM OF MONSOON The climate of India is strongly influenced by monsoon winds. The sailors who came to India in historic times were one of the first to have noticed the phenomenon

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Class 9 / Geography / Climate / The Onset of the Monsoon and Withdrawal

MONSOON- PULSATING IN NATURE

MONSOON- PULSATING IN NATURE The Monsoon, unlike the trades, are not steady winds but are pulsating in nature, affected by different atmospheric conditions encountered by it, on its way over the wa

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Class 9 / Geography / Climate / The Seasons

THE COLD WEATHER SEASON(WINTER)

THE COLD WEATHER SEASON (WINTER) The monsoon type of climate is characterised by a distinct seasonal pattern. The weather conditions greatly change from one season to the other. These changes are p

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Class 9 / Geography / Climate / The Seasons

THE HOT WEATHER SEASON (SUMMER)

THE HOT WEATHER SEASON (SUMMER) Due to the apparent northward movement of the sun, the global heat belt shifts northwards. As such, from March to May, it is a hot weather season in I

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Class 9 / Geography / Climate / The Seasons

ADVANCING MONSOON (THE RAINY SEASON)

ADVANCING MONSOON (THE RAINY SEASON) By early June, the low-pressure condition over the northern plains intensifies. It attracts the trade winds of the southern hemisphere. These south-east tr

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Class 9 / Geography / Climate / The Seasons

RETREATING /POST MONSOON (THE TRANSITION SEASON)

RETREATING /POST MONSOON (THE TRANSITION SEASON) During October-November, with the apparent movement of the sun towards the south, the monsoon trough or the low-pressure trough over the northern pl

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Class 9 / Geography / Climate / The Seasons

DISTRIBUTION OF RAINFALL

DISTRIBUTION OF RAINFALL Parts of the western coast and northeastern India receive over about 400 cm of rainfall annually. However, it is less than 60 cm in western Rajasthan and adjoining parts of

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Class 9 / Geography / Climate / The Seasons

MONSOON AS AN UNIFYING BOND

MONSOON AS AN UNIFYING BOND You have already known the way the Himalayas protect the subcontinent from extremely cold winds from central Asia. This enables northern India to have uniformly higher t

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Class 9 / Geography / Natural Vegetation and Wildlife / virgin vegetation, Flora and Fauna

WHAT IS VIRGIN VEGETATION AND FLORA AND FAUNA?

WHAT IS VIRGIN VEGETATION AND FLORA AND FAUNA? Have you observed the type of trees, bushes, grasses and birds in the fields and parks in and around your school?   Are they similar o

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Class 9 / Geography / Natural Vegetation and Wildlife / Relief

LAND AND SOIL

LAND AND SOIL Land Land affects the natural vegetation directly and indirectly. Do you expect the same type of vegetation in mountainous, plateau and plain areas or in dry and wet regions? The n

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Class 9 / Geography / Natural Vegetation and Wildlife / Climate

TEMPERATURE, PHOTOPERIOD(SUNLIGHT) AND PRECIPITATION

TEMPERATURE, PHOTOPERIOD(SUNLIGHT) AND PRECIPITATION Temperature The character and extent of vegetation are mainly determined by temperature along with humidity in the air, precipitation and soi

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Class 9 / Geography / Natural Vegetation and Wildlife / Types of Vegetation

TROPICAL EVERGREEN FORESTS

TROPICAL EVERGREEN FORESTS Types of vegetation The following major types of vegetation may be identified in our country (Figure 5.3). Figure 5.3: Natural Vegetation   &nbs

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Class 9 / Geography / Natural Vegetation and Wildlife / Types of Vegetation

TROPICAL DECIDUOUS FORESTS

TROPICAL DECIDUOUS FORESTS These are the most widespread forests of India. They are also called the monsoon forests and spread over the region receiving rainfall between 200 cm and 70 cm. Trees of

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Class 9 / Geography / Natural Vegetation and Wildlife / Types of Vegetation

THE THORN FORESTS AND SCRUBS

THE THORN FORESTS AND SCRUBS In regions with less than 70 cm of rainfall, the natural vegetation consists of thorny trees and bushes. This type of vegetation is found in the north-western part of t

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Class 9 / Geography / Natural Vegetation and Wildlife / Types of Vegetation

MONTANE FORESTS

MONTANE FORESTS In mountainous areas, the decrease in temperature with increasing altitude leads to the corresponding change in natural vegetation. As such, there is a succession of natural vegetat

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Class 9 / Geography / Natural Vegetation and Wildlife / Types of Vegetation

MANGROVE FORESTS

MANGROVE FORESTS The mangrove tidal forests are found in the areas of coasts influenced by tides. Mud and silt get accumutated on such coasts. Dense mangroves are the common varieties with roots of

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Class 9 / Geography / Natural Vegetation and Wildlife / Wildlife

WILDLIFE IN INDIA

WILDLIFE IN INDIA Like its flora, India is also rich in its fauna. It has approximately 90,000 animal species. The country has about 2,000 species of birds. They constitute 13% of the world’s

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Class 9 / Geography / Natural Vegetation and Wildlife / Wildlife

STEPS TO PROTECT THE FLORA AND FAUNA

STEPS TO PROTECT THE FLORA AND FAUNA To protect the flora and fauna of the country, the government has taken many steps.   i.   Eighteen biosphere reserves have been set up in

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Class 9 / Geography / Population / Population - The Pivotal Element

INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION Can you imagine a world without human beings? Who would have utilised the resources and created social and cultural environment? The people are important to develop the economy an

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Class 9 / Geography / Population / Population Size and Distribution

SIZE, DISTRIBUTION BY NUMBERS AND BY DENSITY

SIZE, DISTRIBUTION BY NUMBERS AND BY DENSITY   India’s Population Size and Distribution by Numbers India’s population as on March 2011 stood at 1,210.6 million, which account

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Class 9 / Geography / Population / Population Growth and Process of Population Change

POPULATION GROWTH

POPULATION GROWTH   Population growth and processes of population change Population is a dynamic phenomenon. The numbers, distribution and composition of the population are constantly ch

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Class 9 / Geography / Population / Population Growth and Process of Population Change

PROCESS OF POPULATION CHANGE/GROWTH

PROCESS OF POPULATION CHANGE/GROWTH There are three main processes of change of population : i.   birth rates, ii.  death rates and iii. migration.   The

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Class 9 / Geography / Population / Population Growth and Process of Population Change

AGE COMPOSITION AND SEX RATIO

AGE COMPOSITION AND SEX RATIO The age composition of a population refers to the number of people in different age groups in a country. It is one of the most basic characteristics of a population. T

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Class 9 / Geography / Population / Population Growth and Proc